, or when referring to both.3 Within this expanding
chronicle characteristic trajectories have gradually been defined from broader
methodological and geographical perspectives.4 This chapter shows how, in
the United States’ context, some of the most important strategies of conceptualism
developed through the influence of contemporaneous politics, more specifically
the transition from Civil Rights into Black Power, the New Left, the anti-warmovement, feminism, and gay liberation, as well as what later came to be
The synthetic proposition
It would not be fair to single out Chomsky as the sole culprit for the indecencies that would characterise the so-called ‘anti-war’ movement in the years that followed: its open alliances with Khomeinist thugs, its Gaza flotilla escapades, its fundraising for Hamas, its serial betrayal of Afghan secularists and feminists and its rousing chorus of ‘we had it coming’ every time a psychopath shouted Allahu Akbar and went on a killing spree in London or Ottawa or Paris. But it is fair to notice that Chomsky would end up getting exactly what he wanted.
A critical openness.
Drawing the lesson of the disastrous history of left apologetics over the crimes of Stalinism and Maoism, as well as more recent exercises in the same vein (some of the reaction to the crimes of 9/11, the excuse-making for suicide-terrorism, the disgraceful alliances lately set up inside the ‘anti-war’ movement with illiberal theocrats), we reject the notion that there are no opponents on the Left. We reject, similarly, the idea that there can be no opening to ideas and individuals to our right. Leftists who make common cause with, or
, the specific and often contradictory experiences of individual veterans are being clouded by a generalised, almost nostalgic version of the diggers and their war. Furthermore, in this modern re-working of the legend aspects of their war experience which were once taboo are now publicly acceptable. The Vietnam War and the influence of the peace and anti-warmovement have altered public perceptions of war so that the soldier as victim is a more acceptable character – though he still takes second place to the Anzac hero. Fred can now talk more easily about his
by showing the coherence of an on-going mode of practice that synthesised
the infrastructural analysis of first generation Conceptual Art with a turn to
overt representation of political subject matter. This development reflects the
influence of Civil Rights, Black Power, the student movement, the anti-warmovement, second wave feminism, and the gay liberation movement. Central
in the American context, the multiple identity-based mobilisations that came
to be known as “identity politics” were further articulated in the 1970s. These
processes were reflected in
video production. 13 Along with its own films, such as Berlusconi’s Mousetrap and Route Irish (Indymedia Ireland, n.d.) (documenting the anti-warmovement), particular mention should go to the productive Revolt Video Collective ( 2013 ), which has produced a wide range of short films on key campaigns and issues.
The bigger picture
In the 2000s, the Internet, and Indymedia, had become crucial to many movements as a tool to mobilise resistance, highlight success, publicise issues and scandals, and generate critical perspectives. Nonetheless, access
because of the party’s growing associations with
the anti-warmovement and cultural liberalism. In their eyes, the party
had become tied to ‘amnesty, abortion, and acid’. During
the same period, white evangelical Christians moved towards the GOP.
Supreme Court rulings establishing abortion rights and ending school
prayer in public schools, and the Democrats’ identification with
what appeared as an assault against long-established moral and religious
values led to a weakening of traditional political affiliations