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British news media, war and theory in the 2003 invasion of Iraq

This book analyses British news media coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It describes the analytical framework that serves as the basis for theoretically informed and systematic analysis of wartime media performance. The book synthesises a range of models, hypotheses and explanatory variables to set out a framework composed of three models of news media performance: the elite-driven model, the independent model and the oppositional model. It provides three case studies which, in different ways, illuminate each model of news media performance in wartime. The three case studies include the case of Jessica Lynch, the case of Ali Abbas and the case of the anti-war movement. The book then presents an account of how the relationship between foreign policy, news media and war might be expected to operate, based on current theoretical understanding. In order to place British coverage of the invasion in context, the book offers brief summaries of the structure and character of Britain's television news services and its press. The book provides an analysis of the ways in which the news media's visual depictions of the war reinforced supportive coverage. It is devoted to documenting and analysing evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage. The book also examines the representation of civilian casualties, military casualties and humanitarian operations across both television and press, three subject areas that generated a good deal of media criticism.

Jessica Lynch, Ali Abbas and the anti- war movement
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

7 Case studies from the invasion of Iraq: Jessica Lynch, Ali Abbas and the anti-war movement Introduction Here we provide a focused analysis of three case studies, which serve to represent the three differing modes of news media performance in wartime, as well as shedding more light on the news-making process. The Jessica Lynch case study, involving the ‘dramatic’ rescue of a US ‘prisoner of war’, highlights just how compliant and deferential news media can be in wartime and can be viewed as an ‘ideal type’ example of supportive coverage. The case of Ali Abbas

in Pockets of resistance
John Corner

immediately works symbolically as well as naturalistically. Similarly, the photograph has sufficient figurative ambiguity to afford a resource both for pro-war and anti-war readings, as student opinion also showed.5 It is a photograph that one might imagine the US Army being quite comfortable with, as well as the anti-war movement. Since Hetherington was working at the time as an embedded journalist, this is not at all surprising. Aesthetically, the very darkness of the image was central to critical responses, for some critics the indication of a technical

in Theorising Media
Abstract only
Julian Mitchell’s Another Country
Jonathan Bolton

—a contemporary of Burgess's at Cambridge and an energetic leader of the Communist Club there—another likely part of the composite. Judd also “sneers” during the school's dedication ceremony for old boys lost in the Great War and early drafts of the play have him wearing an anti-war movement badge—a kind of forerunner perhaps of the CND peace sign. 24 Although the outline of Judd's life and his commitment to politics is drawn from Cornford and Guest (the postscript to the film version has

in The Blunt Affair
From Vietnam to the war in the Persian Gulf
John Storey

also, and significantly, fail to articulate that which might also be remembered. I want to consider briefly four examples of what Hollywood ‘forgot’ about America’s war in Vietnam. Forgetting Vietnam Nowhere in Hollywood’s discourse on Vietnam are we informed about the extent of the resistance to the war. The counterculture, and the anti-war movement in general, has been given

in Memory and popular film
Abstract only
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

could be assessed (the case of the anti-war movement). We conclude our study, in Chapter 8, with a synthesis of the results of our empirical analysis and discuss their implications for a theoretical understanding of wartime media–state relations. Within this process, we pay close attention to the applicability of the elite-driven, independent and oppositional  models and consider the implications of our findings in relation to broader debates about the impact of new technologies, changing geo-political contexts, contemporary approaches to media-management, as well as

in Pockets of resistance
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

, critical reporting came to reflect the debate between hawks and doves in Washington but largely failed to represent the viewpoints of the anti-war movement. The ‘political contest’, ‘policy-media interaction’ and ‘cascading activation’ models, advanced by Wolfsfeld (1997), Robinson (2002) and Entman (2004) respectively, are less restrictive vis-à-vis the potential independence of journalists. For example, Wolfsfeld (1997) argues that news media do, at times, advocate the interests of non-elite groups against the interests of the state; as an example, he provides evidence

in Pockets of resistance
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

, 2003) and there were even popular moves to boycott French imports, but in Britain there was widespread public debate and protest (see the case study of the anti-war movement in Chapter 7). Between January and March, polls showed public opposition to be substantial and support to be conditional on a second UN 72 Pockets of resistance resolution.11 On 15 February, approximately one million anti-war protestors marched through London in the country’s largest ever demonstration.12 It was against this backdrop of continuing attempts to manage public opinion, the absence

in Pockets of resistance
Abstract only
Patterns of support, negotiation and opposition
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

Oppositional model Sky, ITV, BBC Sun, Mail, Times, Telegraph Battle, justifications for war (esp. humanitarian) Channel 4 Mirror, Independent, Guardian Civilian casualties, military casualties, humanitarian operations, law and order Ali Abbas Mirror, Independent, Guardian Civilian casualties, military casualties, humanitarian operations, law and order Ali Abbas Jessica Lynch, anti-war movement Jessica Lynch case study provides an ‘ideal type’ example of the propensity of news media to champion ‘good news’ stories from the battlefront; moreover, it highlights the

in Pockets of resistance
Evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage
Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard, Katy Parry, Craig Murray, and Philip M. Taylor

airstrike, and the case of British news media representation of the anti-war movement. Each of these case studies provides a more in-depth analysis of particular events that formed part of the broader patterns of supportive, negotiated and oppositional coverage documented so far. Evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage 131 Notes 1 Telephone interview with Jon Snow, 19 December 2008. 2 Telephone interview with Alex Thomson, 10 December 2008. 3 Further evidence for newspaper diversity, based on our main thematic framing measures, can be readily seen in Tables 6

in Pockets of resistance