councils and the chamber of representatives, maintaining her M-19 ideals: “I think that the commitment with M-19 is the one that has defined my whole life” (C9).
An example of a resilient Vietnam veteran is Charles, who was 22 when he went to war in 1967. His life diagram can be seen in Figure 3 . Charles grew up in a rather apolitical family, and his political interest was awakened by the Vietnam War. When he returned home, he became active in the anti-warmovement. The Kent State massacre, when on May 4, 1970 a number of students were shot by the
Surveillance and transgender bodies in a post-9/ 11 era of neoliberalism
to health insurance or disability pay (and when she does receive
care the nurses will not use her preferred pronoun, constantly reverting
to ‘he’ and ‘him’). Max also becomes close with
Thor, a white American trans man who clearly brings together many
struggles, most specifically transgender rights and the anti-warmovement. Thor is eventually arrested for using the ‘wrong’
bathroom, but his biggest
of war. Yet some of the Vietnam veterans became engaged in the anti-warmovement, and thus a few of them (Charles, Dennis, Ben and Ford) felt they had in fact contributed to stopping the war and ensuring peace in Vietnam. Lee and Thomas disagreed with the war protesters and wrote them off as cowards at the time, but later changed their minds and came to see this differently.
Several interviewees from all three cases explained how a central aspect of peace, and achieving peace, was reconciliation and compromise. Rebuilding trust between different
directly linked to those who protested against the war. The war resistance while the conflict was ongoing was interpreted by some as resistance to them as soldiers, whereby they as veterans embodied the guilt of the war. Thus, the anti-warmovement became linked to how they were treated by society overall when they came home: “I've always felt that the anti-war people were against those that were in the military” (Robert, U12). The degree to which these protests have affected them has been tempered over time. The lack of parades when they came home (as compared to other
However, during college he became involved in the anti-warmovement, and so he considered going into exile in Canada to avoid the draft.
As he was already commissioned, the question was not if but when he would go to Vietnam. He finally went on active duty two months after he graduated.
Others signed up because they dreamed of becoming pilots, and not much else figured in their decision. For instance, Robert (U12), who was also in the ROTC program, just wanted to fly. Thomas, however, enlisted
which the limits of a state-centered perspective on politics, social,
economic, and ecological phenomena became striking, undeniable, and
accordingly “real” to people all over the world in
manifold ways. 2 From
international debt, oil prices, and food crises, to the transnational
anti-warmovement and the rise of the debate on “limits to
growth,” at the beginning of
the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968, by rebelling students, by the anti-warmovement, the environmental movement and the counter-culture, by rising criminality and drug consumption, by the war in Vietnam. These were followed by serious economic crises and by Watergate, which shook people’s faith in their political institutions. 65
The ‘crisis of confidence’ and the overall crisis discourse also coloured political analyses of transatlantic relations. In 1971, the diplomat Martin Hillenbrand wrote a memo for the Secretary of
governments and military
were by far the most frequently cited sources, there were several
sources who voiced criticisms of the war’s rationale and effects,
including UN officials, aid agencies and Iraqi civilians, as indicated
in Figure 7.2 . The category ‘anti-war
critics’ includes prominent parliamentary opponents of the war as
well as representatives of the popular anti-warmovement, which helps to