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G. F A Gadoffre
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Author: Katia Pizzi

This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of machine culture in Italian futurism after the First World War. The machine was a primary concern for the futuristi. As well as being a material tool in the factory it was a social and political agent, an aesthetic emblem, a metonymy of modernity and international circulation and a living symbol of past crafts and technologies. Exploring literature, the visual and performing arts, photography, music and film, the book uses the lens of European machine culture to elucidate the work of a broad set of artists and practitioners, including Censi, Depero, Marinetti, Munari and Prampolini. The machine emerges here as an archaeology of technology in modernity: the time machine of futurism.

Douglas Field

Despite publishing nearly forty books between 1963 and 2003, Jeff Nuttall remains a minor figure in the history of the International Underground of the long 1960s. Drawing on his uncatalogued papers at the John Rylands Library, this article seeks to recoup Nuttall as one of the key architects of the International Underground. In so doing, my article argues that Nuttalls contributions to global counterculture challenge the critical consensus that British avant-garde writers were merely imitators of their US counterparts. By exploring the impact of Nuttalls My Own Mag (1963–67) and Bomb Culture(1968), it can be shown that Nuttall was a central catalyst of, and contributor to, the International Underground. As a poet, novelist and artist, Nuttalls multidisciplinary contributions to art were at the forefront of avant-garde practices that sought to challenge the perceived limitations of the novel as a social realist document and visual art as a medium confined to canvas.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Douglas Field and Jay Jeff Jones

The exhibition Off Beat: Jeff Nuttall and the International Underground (8 September 2016 to 5 March 2017) showcases the archive of Jeff Nuttall (1933–2004), a painter, poet, editor, actor and novelist. As the exhibition illustrates, Nuttall was a central figure in the International Underground during the 1960s through to the early 1970s. During this time he collaborated with a vast network of avant-garde writers from across the globe, as well as editing the influential publication My Own Mag between 1963 and 1967.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
A history
Hans Bertens

simply did not know one another’s example of post-modernism. And when they did, one man’s post-modernism appeared to others as only slightly varied modernism, or nostalgic and mystified returns to the sixties, or mere fringe avant garde phenomena’. 14 Only the loosest, un-theoretical and unphilosophical formulation (which still emphasized postmodernism’s superior representative qualities), such as the one offered in 1978 by Robert Kern, could capture what most of these postmodernisms had in common: ‘Modernist poetics

in Post-everything
Spiritualist phenomena, Dada photomontage, and magic
Leigh Wilson

Pierre Apraxine and Sophie Schmit, acknowledges the important effect that avant-garde theory and practice have had on the collecting and valuation of spirit photographs from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.5 However, despite this acknowledgement, the exhibition and accompanying catalogue mark a rejection of a formalist approach: To consider only the aesthetic qualities of these images, to disregard the original motives for their production, ignoring the environment in which they were produced and removing them from their documentary context, is to risk

in The machine and the ghost
Stephen Gundle

be applied directly to Italy. No film of the power and originality of Triumph of the Will was produced. Nevertheless, some of The aftermath of the Mussolini cult251 the propaganda and the art created by the regime were hybrids, while other examples are now of recognised artistic value. The post-war influence of architecture and other applied arts also needs consideration. The avant-garde contributions to the cult remain striking, as are the photomontages that not only transmitted a political message but also turned Mussolini into a modernist icon. These hold a

in The cult of the Duce
The examples of Algeria and Tunisia
Martin Thomas

universities. Articulate, francophone colonial students supplied the cadres and journalistic voices of what Mahfoud Kaddache terms the avant-garde révolutionnaire of anti-colonial nationalism. 63 There are close parallels between the Vietnamese and Chinese students drawn to Communist internationalism in 1920s Paris and the negritude movement of the 1930s which brought together

in The French empire between the wars
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Reimagining intimacy in Scotland, 1880–1914
Author: Tanya Cheadle

This book provides the first group portrait of the late Victorian and Edwardian feminists and socialists who campaigned against the moral conservatism of Victorian Scotland. They include Bella and Charles Bream Pearce, prominent Glasgow socialists and disciples of an American-based mystic who taught that religion needed to be ‘re-sexed’; Jane Hume Clapperton, a feminist freethinker with advanced views on birth control and women’s right to sexual pleasure; and Patrick Geddes, founder of an avant-garde Edinburgh subculture and co-author of an influential scientific book on sex. The consideration of their lives and work undertaken here forces a reappraisal of our understanding of sexual progressivism in Britain in a number of important ways. It affirms that a precondition of ‘speaking out’ about sex was the rejection of orthodox Christianity, with alternative forms of belief providing spaces in which a new morality could be fashioned. It disrupts the long-standing perception of the fin de siècle as an era of generational challenge, highlighting the importance of considering older radicalisms, such as freethought. Finally, it emphasises the regulatory role played by socialist and feminist organisations, reluctant to reinscribe past associations between political radicalism and immorality. This meant that despite their reforming zeal, Scotland’s sexual progressives often adhered to respectable norms, deferring their reimagined intimate relationships to an idealised future.

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The rape of Europa
Katia Pizzi

the world, compressing time and space. The futuristi translated the tension between nationalism and internationalism entrenched in the avant-guerre into the postwar via the machine, in tandem with a broader semantics.4 Futurismo was first and foremost a movement of the now, of the here and of the elsewhere. Originally labelled ‘dynamism’ (dinamismo), with reference to ‘dispersion   1 A. Appadurai, The Future as Cultural Fact: Essays on the Global Condition (London and New York: Verso, 2013), 225.   2 M. Perloff, The Futurist Moment: Avant-Garde, Avant Guerre, and

in Italian futurism and the machine