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Alternatives to surgical gloves for infection control, 1880–1945
Thomas Schlich

of antisepsis is another example that shows the neglect of alternatives in traditional historiography. For a long time, the history of antisepsis has been told as a story of innovative spirit versus conservative stubbornness. In this narrative, surgeons who accepted Lister’s antisepsis early on were seen as avant-garde. Those who did not were thought to be resistant to innovation. This was a teleological discussion, in that it presumed the adoption of antisepsis was the natural outcome of historical events. In the past two decades, new historical work has resulted

in Germs and governance
Abstract only
Pasts, present, futures
Michael Brown

, Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life (1874)1 I n G eorge E li ot ’ s celeb rat ed novel, Middlemarch, the young and idealistic doctor, Tertius Lydgate, enters upon his career as a provincial general practitioner with hope, expectation and not a little pride. Schooled in the avant-garde anatomo-clinical methods of Edinburgh and Paris, he intends to make a great contribution to medical science, to move beyond the pioneering work of the French anatomist, Xavier Bichat, and discover the essential ‘primitive tissue’ from which the structures of the human body are composed

in Performing medicine
Christine E. Hallett

young women at war suggested that West’s original work on the serialisation of the diary in 1926 was primarily motivated by financial need: West was a single mother.21 It may be that, having achieved success and acclaim as an author by 1930, she no longer wanted to be associated with this unusual and avant-garde production of her earlier years. It may also be that she saw War Nurse as a less polished, less sophisticated piece of writing than her other works. The book’s staccato passages and, at times, overwrought impressions contrast markedly with the beautiful and

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Lea M. Williams

since vanished. Pitiful shells they were.” 9 This diversity and unconventionality undoubtedly engaged and sometimes repelled La Motte as it did so many others like her during the carefree years in Paris before the war, when Montparnasse was a magnet for artists, aspiring and established. The apartment of American writer Gertrude Stein and her partner, Alice B. Toklas, was a hub for artistic and expatriate activity and conversation, 10 and Stein provided a gateway into avant-garde Paris, “introducing a lot of

in Ellen N. La Motte
Christine E. Hallett

-century literary modernism.18 It was probably she who introduced La Motte to Mary Borden. Stein’s ‘salon’ at the rue de Fleurus in Paris was a recognised avant-garde centre of art and literature. Although their emphases were different, Borden and La Motte wrote in similar styles, drawing upon their personal experiences to produce terse and harrowing accounts of the war.19 La Motte  – a descendent of influential French Huguenots  – was probably motivated, at least in part, by a desire to support her ancestral homeland.20 When she first arrived in Paris, she nursed at the American

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Joris Vandendriessche

–61. On Gustaaf Schamelhout: R. de Bont, Van literaire avant-garde tot raswetenschap: Gustaaf 204 Medical societies and scientific culture Schamelhout (1869–1944) (Brussels: Koninklijke Vlaamse academie van België voor wetenschappen en kunsten, 2002). 100 ‘Séance du 10 mars 1899,’ BSMA, 61 (1899), 150–61. 101 ‘Séance ordinaire du 5 juin 1900,’ BSMG, 67 (1900), 241–4. 102 ‘Séance ordinaire du 7 mai 1867,’ BSMG, 34 (1867): 129–31. 103 ‘Bulletin de la séance du 2 octobre 1882,’ JMCP, 75 (1882), 397–400. 104 ‘Bulletin de la séance du 5 avril 1880,’ JMCP 70 (1880

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
Self-help books in the early decades of the twentieth century
Jill Kirby

venereal disease, as estimates in 1930 suggested as many as 2.6 million patients were suffering from syphilis or gonorrhoea, which although treatable could affect offspring. 100 Ironically, during the nineteenth century syphilis had sometimes been associated with high status and genius among the avant-garde: this was no longer the case. 101 The concern with heredity can also be seen within the context of worries about degeneration, partly prompted by the poor health of volunteers in the Boer and First World Wars but also supported by nascent understandings of genetics

in Feeling the strain
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

-consciously avant-garde’.51 And yet she also suggests that nurse writers were ‘accidental modernists’:52 that their modernism was part of the struggle to find ways of documenting an 8 Introduction experience that had no precedents and was, essentially, disjointed and meaningless. Santanu Das concurs with this view, arguing that the writings of nurse modernists derived from the ‘impotence of sympathy’.53 These arguments have some force; and yet, if one examines the backgrounds of both Borden and La Motte, it becomes clear that both were aspirant authors prior to the war, and

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

nursing practice  – a knowledge that was built on her rigorous training at The London Hospital and on her later extensive experience on both Western and Eastern Fronts. The book is infused with Thurstan’s sense of the judgement and autonomy of the trained nurse and offers an insight into her philosophy of modern nursing: that the nurse should understand the science behind her practice, and yet should also show deference and obedience to the doctor. A remarkably avant-garde piece of writing, A Text Book of War Nursing has received far less attention than Thurstan’s other

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Tommy Dickinson

of Economics in 1967 and student riots in Paris in 1968, which suggested that groups that were not traditionally in the political mainstream were claiming the power and ability to express their specific concerns. Meanwhile, the ‘summer of love’11 and the professed sexual revolution led to deliberation around issues of sexual pleasure and monogamy.12 By 1965, arguably Britain’s most daring playwright, its most commended avant-garde artist and its most esteemed composer – Joe Orton, Francis Bacon and Benjamin Britten – were all openly homosexual.13 Television

in ‘Curing queers’