accretions since the time of Benedict, the solution offered by the Cistercians, whose most articulate spokesman was Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard’s denunciations of the excesses of monastic churches and liturgical trappings were delivered with all the passion of an Old Testament prophet. At the same time he emerged as an avant-garde prophet in his sensitive articulation of major new themes such as the love of God; the tender and comprehending Mary; and the suffering, deeply human Jesus, best seen perhaps in contrast to the distant, severe, regal judge that God had been
Patricia Ingham suggests, utopia is seen
as ‘shot through with the sheen of the new; the medieval, on the other
hand, rarely associated with innovation or an active avantgarde, seems
thus unused, if not unable, to conjure the utopian’. 25 Yet Morris makes claims for an
analogical historical progression that brings past, present and future
together. The ability to ‘dream’ the past is ‘nothing new’, yet it can
, she was deeply influenced by the poet Hilda Doolittle, whose first publication launched the imagist movement and gave her the abbreviated name H.D. by which she would become known. H.D. had given Ezra Pound one of her poems to read, upon which he wrote ‘H. D. Imagiste’ before sending it straight to Harriet Monroe's then new and avant-garde magazine Poetry .
H.D.'s book Sea
Garden captured the imagination of the young Bryher, well before she knew the identity of its author
Bringing stone, flesh, and text to life in Andreas
belongs to ‘a self-conscious avant-garde that confronts and consumes its past selves’ and is ‘a generic hybrid that has always rested uneasily in the Anglo-Saxon canon’. 14 Irina Dumitrescu finds citation, including of Beowulf , in rather unexpected settings, to be an integral component of the Andreas -author's sophisticated pedagogical programme. 15
The fourth textual frame, more general than Praxeis or Beowulf , comes from Old English generic conventions, but here, too, complications arise. To which genre does Andreas belong? Most critics acknowledge its
spectacular scenes to the extent that continuity errors
are left in the tale, the film is superficially coherent, but neglects
narrative flow in favour of impressive images at every turn. A tradition
of medieval film that engaged with questions of temporality in a range
of ways was thus established early on.
It is not just avant-garde or art-house cinema that
constitutes the Middle Ages in a deferred action
This is a widespread view, echoed, for instance,
in Carlo Mierendorff, ‘Hätte ich das Kino’ , in
Kino-Debatte , pp. 139–46 (p. 145).
See Tom Gunning, ‘The cinema of attraction:
early film, its spectator and the avant-garde’, Wide Angle ,
8:3–4 (1986), 63
Beowulf translations by Seamus Heaney and Thomas Meyer
Arthur Brodeur, ‘The structure and unity of Beowulf ’, PMLA , 68.5 (1953), 1183–95; J. R. R. Tolkien, ‘ Beowulf : the monsters and the critics’, Proceedings of the British Academy , 22 (1936), 245–95.
Daniel Remein, ‘Robin Blaser, Jack Spicer, and Arthur Brodeur: avant-garde poetics, the pedagogy of Old English at mid-century, and a counterfactual critical history, or, the
lyric zone of electrification is dissipating along with the belief in the autonomy of the lyric object and in the specialness of the lyric mode. 129
What counts nowadays is use: ‘If “lyric” is a concept that will help us think, it’s because it helps us think about something besides lyric.’ To say ‘that lyric studies is a means to an end does not denigrate lyric’, therefore, ‘but only requires it to be like anything else’. 130 Medievalists will be pleased to learn that the artless memos they imagined permanently unfashionable turn out to have been avant-garde
Rood as Ekphrasis’, p. 267).
53 Adijata Ibrišimović-Šabić, ‘Kameni spavač’ Maka Dizdara i ruska književna avangarda [ Mak Dizdar's ‘Stone Sleeper’ and the Russian Literary Avant-garde ] (Sarajevo: Slavistički komitet, 2010), p. 66. ‘Njegova glavna odlika sastoji se u tome da u centru pažnje više nije toliko sam umjetnički objekt, koliko pjesnikov doživljaj datog predmeta … Ekfrazisi ovog tipa zapravo su modificirani tekst, tekst koji ne imitira, već stvaralački prerađuje …’ The translation is mine.
blessing (Nm 6:24–6) or the more common phylacteries, with evidence for their use ranging from the Second Temple to the present. 2 The emerging Christian communities of Late Antiquity were not oblivious to the matter of their Bibles. They made use of the codex – the technological avant-garde of their time – and saw the move away from scrolls as a tangible manifestation of the new message recorded in their sacred books. 3 Much like their Graeco-Roman and Jewish neighbours, Christians also employed sacred scriptures as talismans: Coptic communities placed Gospel books