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Hayyim Rothman

‘conscious avant-garde’ exercises power on behalf of the passive multitude and leverages ‘the most severe compulsion’ to reeducate mankind from above in the paradoxical hope of thereby creating a ‘free stateless life.’ In contrast, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries believed in a ‘conscious majority ’ capable of acting as its own agent in the social revolution and considered this to be the only approach consistent with the revolutionary goal of freedom (Steinberg 1921 ). Steinberg's solution consisted first in distinguishing between political and

in No masters but God
Fergal Casey

was avant-garde in urging intervention in a recession. The Liberals refused to recognise the ‘existence of “unemployment” in the 1880s’ because economic orthodoxy deemed it was merely a ‘temporary dislocation to the balance of equilibrium, and they believed that the re-establishment of that balance needed only the corrective forces of the free market’.73 They boycotted Lord Salisbury’s 1885 Royal Commission on the Depression of Trade because it ‘dignified a nonsense’.74 Paul Krugman notes that in the 1930s: many prominent economists subscribed to a sort of

in Irish Catholic identities
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Women’s activism in the Secularist movement
Laura Schwartz

-consciously rebellious and at times derisive of traditionally female qualities – which re-emerged particularly strongly in the pages of The Freewoman from 1911 to 1913 and in post-war avant-garde feminist circles more generally. 105 Only tiny numbers of female Freethinkers, however, were able to assume the ‘masculine’ role of Secularist preacher. The ultra-democratic Freethought ideal of a free community of speakers opened up

in Infidel feminism
Heather Walton

nineteenth century, despite the rise in totalitarianism, poetic language has born its own witness to the coming of a new era. Avant-garde linguistic forms are the inevitable companions of crises within social institutions and bear witness to ‘the moment of their mutation, evolution, revolution, or disarray’ (1980: 124). There is no doubt that in positing a beyond of language Kristeva has made a significant intervention in poststructuralist thought. Lacan viewed eruptions of the real into the symbolic as essentially meaningless and Kristeva contradicts this assumption. In

in Literature, theology and feminism
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Christian Suhr

of the time-image is the reinstatement of belief in the world. As he writes, modern cinema makes us ‘believe, not in a different world, but in a link between man and the world, in love or life, to believe in this as in the impossible, the unthinkable, which nonetheless cannot but be thought’ (Deleuze 2005b : 164). Even though Deleuze locates this development in the rise of a particular form of avant-garde cinema in the mid-twentieth century, many of his formulations resonate well with Kierkegaard's understanding of the double movement of faith conceived of as the

in Descending with angels
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Mobility and anti-Semitism in the interwar period
Amanda Bergen

oppressed, and in the synagogues the Rabbis implored the congregation not to reply to the defamatory letters in the Press because by so doing they only prolonged the correspondence and therefore the vilifications … in this and other ways was anti-Jewish feeling kept alive and nourished.’ 30 Outposts of artistic, avant-garde and advanced thinking were accessible to Jews and provided opportunities for them to flourish. Before the First World War, Jakob Kramer and Philip Naviasky had attended Leeds School of Fine Arts. Both were able to pursue

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Robert G. Ingram

at the time, not least because his was not the profile of a heterodox anticlerical. He had been a staunch Tory; a longtime scourge of Cambridge’s most prominent Whig; and an ally and a friend to some of Cambridge’s most avant-garde orthodox for nearly two decades. Nor was he naturally acerbic: by all accounts, he was eminently sociable. William Cole, who knew him well, thought him ‘one of the most sober, well-bred, easy & companionable Men 107 Conyers Middleton I ever conversed with’. If in the twilight of Middleton’s life he was ‘bitter & severe [in] his

in Reformation without end
Mary Morrissey

heterodoxy by the terms of the royal supremacy.3 Historians of the 1620s and 30s have amply demonstrated the importance of press control in the tussles for power between the anti-Calvinist avant-garde conformists of the ‘Durham House’ group and the more conservative Calvinist clerics sponsored by Archbishop Abbot.4 Arnold Hunt has described how licensing changed from being viewed ‘as a form of nihil obstat’ (nothing stands in the way) to providing an imprimatur (let it be printed), and views this as part of a longer-term process of ‘concentration and centralization of

in Chaplains in early modern England
Michael Questier

actually much greater levels of violence there during the Nine Years’ War and previous rebellions.65 Indirectly these loyalist English Catholic seminary clergy tapped into some of the contemporary avant-garde conformist thought about the regulation of the Church of England in which episcopal government was of itself both a necessary and a benign entity. Obviously the question of how competing (Protestant and Catholic) episcopal authorities were to co-exist was a rather difficult one. But the Catholic claim was that a Catholic bishop or bishops would be part of the

in College communities abroad
Women in the Freethought movement
Laura Schwartz

dominated by Secularists. 142 This later generation of Freethinkers served to bridge fin de siécle sex radicalism and the pre-war feminist avant-garde. Charles Vickery and Bessie Drysdale, for example, wrote for the feminist Free Love periodical The Freewoman (1911–13), as did Guy Aldred, Rose Witcop and Stella Browne, Freethinkers now better remembered as leading advocates of birth control in the inter-war period

in Infidel feminism