Ireland’s referendum and the journey from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft
Gemeinschaft in terms of the comradeship experienced by soldiers
in war. Genuine community was formed only ‘when each individual bound
himself to what is higher than either individual or community’ (Zimmerman
1990: 74), and the Irish State, as it was in its early years, placed the Catholic
Church in this position.
Much of this is commonplace knowledge; most cultural critics are aware
of these changes. What has not really been discussed, however, are the structural effects of these changes on both Church and State in Ireland. Referring
to our notion of fiction as a form of
August 1934: the letter was sent
Manchester Quakers and refugees, 1933–1937
on to Ellis by Mallalieu.
MFA Letter from H. McKellan, of Alvaney Mount, Romiley, home to ‘The Comradeship
of the CE Holiday Homes Ltd.’ to Tom Ellis 5 and 7 February 1935.
MFA Card from G. Lenssen to Tom Ellis 9 June 1936; Tom Ellis to the GEC 8 June
1936, 4 January 1937; Mary Ormerod to Tom Ellis 4 and 5 January 1937; G. and A.
Lenssen to Tom Ellis 20 April 1937. Gunther Lenssen applied for a work permit in
, women’s congregations
expanded from their origins on the continent and in England and Ireland, to
North America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and Africa.
Visits like that of Mother Philomena Higgins which recounted the ‘hardships
& work’ and the transformation of this ‘spirit of . . . joyful sacrifice’
conjured an image of the women religious that populated these far-flung
convents. Women religious imagined the ‘deep, horizontal comradeship’
with each member of the congregation; this reinforced their corporate
identity.75 They considered themselves part
figures were the orthodox merchants, Maurice Grosskopf and Joseph Jaffe.112
It was almost certainly Rosen who threw the weight of Manchester TVA behind the strategy then favoured by the British Zionist leadership: in January
1942 a two-day conference of the Manchester TVA ended with the demand
‘that the Jewish people be recognised as an Allied nation and that its soldiers
be welcomed into the comradeship of Allied arms as a Jewish fighting force
under the Jewish flag’.113 It is a symptom of its rapid rise in influence within
the Manchester Jewish
late 1960s and through the 1970s.
Writing in 1964 for English adolescents, and echoing his 1957 publication that opened this chapter, the prolific Canon Drinkwater prefaced his
discussion of the Eucharist under the title ‘the sacrament of comrades’:
This love of comrades – lifted up to supernatural level – is the main idea of
Holy Communion: a unity of hearts, stronger than all differences of class or
colour or education: genuine ‘community’ … Everything done in the Upper
Room that night speaks of Comradeship: the washing of the disciples’ feet,
the promise of the
Marian devotion, the Holy Family and Catholic conceptions of marriage and sexuality
boys and girls, with a
training of both equally in the whole subject of homemaking, will result in a
comradeship in and out of the home that will solve more questions than how
to satisfy a husband’s pangs of hunger.73
At a time in which there was an extraordinary societal premium on
women’s maternity and housewifery,74 these examples illustrate dimensions within Catholic teaching that could offer resources for dealing with
the difficulties and stresses of domesticity. Marriage and household maintenance were sanctified and, through appeal to a holy ideal of ‘Mary as
these women was tempered by the parallel defensiveness of Adler’s approach. It was said after his death that he devoted his whole career to creating ‘Jewish-Gentile comradeship[,] … remov[ing] Jewish-Gentile misconceptions [and] striv[ing] … for the honour of the Jewish name’. 204 The subject of Jewish women in medieval England provided Adler with an opportunity to help further these objectives.
As with his later work on Benedict the Gildsman, Adler strove to find cases of Jewish/non-Jewish harmony. Indeed, he believed that there was ‘striking evidence of the