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The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

The book explores how we understand global conflicts as they relate to the ‘European refugee crisis’, and draws on a range of empirical fieldwork carried out in the UK and Italy. It examines how global conflict has been constructed in both countries through media representations – in a climate of changing media habits, widespread mistrust, and fake news. In so doing, it examines the role played by historical amnesia about legacies of imperialism – and how this leads to a disavowal of responsibility for the reasons people flee their countries. The book explores how this understanding in turn shapes institutional and popular responses in receiving countries, ranging from hostility – such as the framing of refugees by politicians, as 'economic migrants' who are abusing the asylum system – to solidarity initiatives. Based on interviews and workshops with refugees in both countries, the book develops the concept of ‘migrantification’ – in which people are made into migrants by the state, the media and members of society. In challenging the conventional expectation for immigrants to tell stories about their migration journey, the book explores experiences of discrimination as well as acts of resistance. It argues that listening to those on the sharpest end of the immigration system can provide much-needed perspective on global conflicts and inequalities, which challenges common Eurocentric misconceptions. Interludes, interspersed between chapters, explore these issues in other ways through songs, jokes and images.

Parvati Nair and Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

Part II Culture and conflict According to Edward Said, ‘culture is sort of a theatre where various political and ideological causes engage one another. Far from being a placid realm of Apollonian gentility, culture can even be a battleground on which causes expose themselves to the light of day and contend with one another’ (Said, in Edwards, 1999 : 249). This quotation from Said shows how culture

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Martin Barker, Clarissa Smith, and Feona Attwood

Game of Thrones has been beset with controversies since its early seasons. Its sexual explicitness, various deviations from Martin's books, shock moments (especially for those who did not know the books), physical threats and conflicts (from individual acts of cruelty to battle scenes), the way that particular peoples and cultures were presented, and so on, have all generated wide and very public debates. These were reflected in many comments that we received, particularly in answers to Questions 15 and 16, which asked

in Watching Game of Thrones
Gandhi (1982), A Chorus Line (1985) and Cry Freedom (1987)
Sally Dux

Race, nation and conflict: Gandhi (1982), A Chorus Line (1985) and Cry Freedom (1987) 5 The 1980s marked the apotheosis of Richard Attenborough’s directorial career in which he fulfilled his twenty-year ambition of realising a film on the life of Mahatma Gandhi. As well as being a personal achievement for Attenborough, Gandhi represented a key moment for the British film industry through its success at the box office and led to national pride by winning eight of the eleven Academy Awards for which it was nominated, the greatest acclaim to that date for a

in Richard Attenborough
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

1 How postcolonial innocence and white amnesia shape our understanding of global conflicts Introduction In this chapter, we examine the main narratives used to make sense of the so-called ‘European migration crisis’ and the relationship to global conflicts. Through the powerful yet highly questionable ‘crisis’ frame (De Genova 2016a), certain events have received international news coverage and play an important role within common-sense visions of ‘reality’, whilst others have been largely ignored. Bearing in mind the available cross-European media coverage

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Guy Austin

judged it to be empty of political analysis and hence ‘revolting’ (Godard 1991 : 139). Certain critics have subsequently attacked Le Chagrin et la pitié as ‘politically vacuous’, and for ignoring the role of the Catholic Church within Vichy (see Avisar 1988 : 19). Nevertheless, the film does engage with the internal conflicts of the Resistance, illustrating the rupture between Catholic and Communist elements

in Contemporary French cinema
Terence Davies and the Paradoxes of Time
Wendy Everett

This article examines the paradoxes inherent in filmic time, with particular reference to the autobiographical work of the British director Terence Davies. Analysing ways in which film, itself constructed from still images, can create, reverse or freeze temporal flux, confuse and blend multiple and conflicting temporalities, and create the spatial dimensions of an ‘imaginary’ time, it argues that the relationship between film and music may well provide a fundamental key to the understanding of filmic time.

Film Studies
Abstract only
A Short History of Brighton on Film
Frank Gray

Over fifty feature films have been made either in or about Brighton and they have all contributed to popular understandings of Brighton‘s history and its character. Collectively, they present the city as a site for extreme emotions and conflicts found within narratives that are always set either on the seafront or at the Royal Pavilion. It can be argued that these Brighton films are not about Brighton at all but instead serve as vehicles for the expression of popular anxieties, concerns and desires. As such, they transcend the specificities of place and history and become projections of what could be described as a national unconscious.

Film Studies
James Baldwin’s Radicalism and the Evolution of His Thought on Israel
Nadia Alahmed

This article traces the evolution of James Baldwin’s discourse on the Arab–Israeli conflict as connected to his own evolution as a Black thinker, activist, and author. It creates a nuanced trajectory of the transformation of Baldwin’s thought on the Arab–Israeli conflict and Black and Jewish relations in the U.S. This trajectory is created through the lens of Baldwin’s relationship with some of the major radical Black movements and organizations of the twentieth century: Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam, and, finally, the Black Power movement, especially the Black Panther Party. Using Baldwin as an example, the article displays the Arab–Israeli conflict as a terrain Black radicals used to articulate their visions of the nature of Black oppression in the U.S., strategies of resistance, the meaning of Black liberation, and articulations of Black identity. It argues that the study of Baldwin’s transformation from a supporter of the Zionist project of nation-building to an advocate of Palestinian rights and national aspirations reveals much about the ideological transformations of the larger Black liberation movement.

James Baldwin Review