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Sabine Lee

6 African conflicts Around the same time as the Balkan Wars shook Europe, a wave of genocidal conflicts rippled through the African continent. They displayed patterns previously not characteristic of warfare in general and tribal warfare in particular. While violence, civil unrest, insurgencies and civil wars had been a recurring feature in many countries of the African continent, since the late 1980s, a number of large-scale and long-running conflicts of immense brutality, increasingly involving the civilian population, both women (as most numerous victims of

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Methodist missionaries in colonial and postcolonial Upper Burma, 1887–1966

The first British Methodist missionaries came to Upper Burma in 1887 and the last left in 1966. They were known as 'Wesleyans' before 1932 and afterwards as 'Methodists'. This book is a study of the ambitions, activities and achievements of Methodist missionaries in northern Burma from 1887-1966 and the expulsion of the last missionaries by Ne Win. Henry Venn, the impeccably evangelical Secretary of the Church Missionary Society (CMS), was the most distinguished and inspiring of nineteenth-century mission administrators. Wesleyan missionaries often found property development more congenial than saving souls. In Pakokku in December 1905, a 'weak' American missionary from Myingyan and a couple of Baptist Burman government officials began 'totally immersing' Wesleyans. Proselytism was officially frowned upon in the Indian Empire. The Wesley high schools were extraordinarily successful during the early years of the twentieth century. The Colonial Government was investing heavily in education. A bamboo curtain descended on Upper Burma in May 1942. Wesley Church Mandalay was gutted during the bombing raids of April 1942 and the Japanese requisitioned the Mission House and the Girls High School soon afterwards. General Ne Win was ruthlessly radical in 1962. By April 1964 Bishop was the last 'front-line' Methodist missionary in Upper Burma and the last European of any sort in Monywa. The book pulls together the themes of conflict, politics and proselytisation in to a fascinating study of great breadth.

Negotiations at the end of British rule in the Shan States of Burma (Myanmar)
Susan Conway

all levels of society, importance was attached to rank, ethnic identity and tribute relations. The Shan states after British conquest of Burma When the British expanded their empire eastwards from India to Burma at the beginning of the nineteenth century, they created conflict with King Bodawpaya (ruled 1819–53) that led to the first Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–26. The ensuing peace treaty, ratified at Yandabo forty-five miles from the then Burmese capital of Ava, gave the British the southern province of Tenasserim, control of the port of Moulmein and the states

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Michael Staunton

immediate eruption of conflict upon Thomas’s elevation to Canterbury, Herbert’s version is also guilty of distortion. He passes over the danger to the relationship between archbishop and king caused by Thomas’s claiming of royal castles and his antagonising of the king’s tenants-in-chief. The description of the council of Tours is highly selective

in The lives of Thomas Becket
The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab
Author: Lucy P. Chester

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

Georgina Sinclair

-bashing The Malayan Police played a crucial role during the ensuing conflict that spanned over a decade. 3 By 1952, 100,000 regular and auxiliary police, 189,000 Home Guards and 45,000 Kampong Guards were assisting the armed forces, often in a frontline capacity. The previous year, the Home Guard, a largely unarmed force had been amalgamated with the Kampong Guard, armed typically with shotguns. The Kampong

in At the end of the line
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Anthony Ascham and English political thought, 1648–50
Author: Marco Barducci

The Puritan Revolution of mid-seventeenth-century England produced an explosion of new and important political thinking. In addition to most famous thinkers, Thomas Hobbes, Sir Robert Filmer and the Levellers, there are other important figures who have been relatively neglected, of whom Anthony Ascham is one. This book is the first full-scale study of Ascham's political thought. Ascham's works were intended to convince lay Presbyterians and royalists to adhere to the policy of national pacification implemented from 1648 by the Independent 'party' within Parliament. From 1648 to 1650 Ascham's propaganda primarily dealt with the issue of the validity of oaths, and insisted on the reciprocal relation between obedience and protection. The first part of Ascham's Discourse focused on 'what things, and how farre a man may lawfully conform to the power and commands of those who hold a kingdome divided by civill warre'. Ascham adopted a twofold line of argument: in the first, he sought to demonstrate that war was consistent with natural law and scripture. Secondly, not all types of war were consistent with the Christian religion and the natural law of self-preservation, only the defensive war. Ascham's natural law theory, which he drew from Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes and John Selden, had therefore both civil and religious implications. Ascham proposed a synthesis between Grotius and Niccolò Machiavelli, underlining the priority of state order over political participation, and justifying war as a means of accessing power only to confirm the necessity of re-establishing order.

Historians and their personae in the Portuguese New State
António da Silva Rêgo

how to be a historian Chapter 7 Coalescence and conflict: historians and their personae in the Portuguese New State António da Silva Rêgo Introduction So far, the framework of scholarly personae has mostly been applied to centres of historical production such as nineteenth-century Germany and Britain. This chapter, by contrast, deals with a more peripheral case: the professionalization of history in early-twentieth-century Portugal, where the identity of the historian was as much a matter of concern as it had been in nineteenth-century Britain or Germany. In

in How to be a historian
Britain’s changing strategy in Afghanistan
Aaron Edwards

8 Building peace amidst conflict: Britain’s changing strategy in Afghanistan It is a singular feature of small wars that from the point of view of strategy the regular forces are upon the whole at a distinct disadvantage as compared to their antagonists.1 Military . . . [s]trategy is particularly concerned with the political consequences and advantages of the threat and use of force; it gives meaning and context to all operational and tactical actions. Its purpose is to balance the ways and means required to achieve stipulated ends, conditioned by the

in Defending the realm?
Treatise writing in late Elizabethan Ireland, 1579–1594
David Heffernan

174 •  debating tudor policy in sixteenth-century ireland  • 4 • Complaint, reform and conflict: Treatise writing in late Elizabethan Ireland, 1579–1594 The years around the Desmond Rebellion witnessed many significant changes in Ireland. The religious overtones of the rebellions in Munster and in the heart of the Pale between 1579 and 1583 led to a growing animosity between the generally Catholic Old English and the predominantly Protestant arrivistes.1 There was also a marked acceleration in the pace at which the state was advancing into the provinces

in Debating Tudor policy in sixteenth-century Ireland