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Michael Robinson

's mixed economy of combining state pensions, treatment and training with public voluntarism. Military and medical research, politicians, senior civil servants and Ministry of Pensions’ medical staff endorsed the therapeutic importance of employment during the conflict and in its immediate aftermath. 20 Even Charles Myers, the first British medical official to pen the term ‘shell-shock’, held that the lack of post-treatment employment in civil life largely negated any progress made during abreaction

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Abstract only
Saint Francis and the treatment of lepers in the central Middle Ages
Courtney A. Krolikoski

endured. As one of the key ruling authorities of the central Middle Ages, the Church used this dual status of the leper to suit its contemporary needs. What resulted were two distinct but conflicting understandings and perceptions of the nature of leprosy. Before the twelfth century, leprosy was often portrayed as divine punishment imposed upon the morally ill. However, during the twelfth century and increasingly in the thirteenth century, leprosy came to be depicted as a disease of the pauperes Christi , the so-called ‘poor of Christ’. Lepers, according to this view

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Coreen Anne McGuire

also as utilised in the prescription of hearing aids and, as I show in the section on ‘The telephone as hearing aid’, the interwar period featured an explosion of hearing aids based on telephone technologies, which led to the increased medicalisation of deafness as the medical community sought to temper the ‘quack’ hearing aids flooding the market. However, the medicalisation of hearing aids was no simple matter. Such medicalised prescription was complicated by conflicts over categorisation, the status of hearing aids as medical devices and the question of which

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

, for example in the consistent and systematic measurements of glucose enabled by self-trackers, which has changed the standard for ‘normal’ blood-sugar ranges. 3 The control and management of our health data is emerging as a key site for future conflict between citizens, corporations and healthcare authorities. This conclusion will therefore pose a series of questions about big data and health to ask: how does self-tracking relate to the longer history of measurement as a normative force outlined in this volume? Can we use our knowledge of the past to look to the

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Michael Robinson

residing in the Free State, the SILA decreed that it was reasonable for the new government to prioritise ex-National Army men and fulfil promises made during enlistment. 17 Official estimates state that around 50 percent of the National Army consisted of British ex-servicemen. British Army veterans subsequently became a primary reason for the victory of the pro-Treaty Free State forces. 18 Arnold wrote of the economic opportunity that the new domestic conflict provided

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. Furthermore, the selection of people we have chosen to measure as standard is subject to discrimination and bias as we prioritise the measurement of easily recognisable groups. This, I contend, has led to biased data sets that have conflicted with individual perceptions of health, especially in cases of invisible but experiential disability. The real-world consequences of this are highlighted in cases of invisible

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Michael Robinson

fright.’ His condition substantially improved within a month and he was discharged home on 30 October 1918. 63 ‘Post-concussional injuries’, where men continued to suffer from the after-effects of head trauma, were prevalent during the First World War and have remained a feature in subsequent conflicts. 64 Thirty-six patients within the RWH casebook displayed a variety of hallucinations and delusions while under treatment, eight of

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Michael Robinson

admitted into their local district asylum . Irish servicemen subsequently shared the ignominy and stigma associated with pauper lunacy. 2 The First World War would dramatically change the treatment of war-induced psychoneuroses. The War Office's official medical history of the conflict went so far as to write that shell-shock ‘raised the psychoneuroses to the dignity of a new war disease before which doctors seemed well-nigh helpless.’ 3

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Coreen Anne McGuire

World War broke out, which had a devastating impact on the Post Office’s ability to invest in the telephone system. The First World War generated a new need for telephones for those with hearing loss. The conflict had accustomed a generation of soldiers to the use of telephony, which they then desired to use at home. But their wartime service had also left many of these same soldiers with myriad hearing loss problems, which raised the profile of deafness as a national concern. This development not only made the treatment of deafness a greater priority for the

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
The social identities of lepers in the late medieval Rhineland
Lucy Barnhouse

least four interpretations of leprosy: that of the Frankfurt physicians, that of those in Cologne, that of Henne himself and that of his social circle. The committee refused to pay costs and damages, stating that they had done their duty in good conscience. These and the Lepraschau ’s other extant letters show a process of social diagnosis for leprosy, as well as its medical diagnosis. We see that these separate diagnostic processes might exist in tension, indeed in conflict. Evidence of communal concern for those suspected of having leprosy comes from an undated

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages