the ILO, a Diplomacy of Expertise ’, Journal of Modern European History , 7 : 2 ( 2009 ), 174 – 196 , p. 177.
91 Timmermans and Berg, The Gold Standard , p. 22.
92 Macnaughton and Carel, ‘Breathing and Breathlessness’.
93 Faull et al., ‘Breathlessness and the Body’.
94 Edgar King to Fred Swift, 20 November 1923. Somerset Miners’ Association, Bristol University Library Special Collections, DM 443, Box 6.
95 For my original analysis of this case see McGuire , C., ‘“ X-Rays Don’t Tell Lies”: The Medical Research Council and the Measurement of
, Special Report Series No. 221) ( London : His Majesty’s Stationery Office , 1937 ), p. 20 .
10 Concert pitch was also standardised as A = 440 in the 1930s. See Gribenski , F. , ‘ Negotiating the Pitch: For a Diplomatic History of A, at the Crossroads of Politics, Music, Science and Industry ’, in F. Ramel and C. Prévost-Thomas (eds), International Relations, Music and Diplomacy: Sounds and Voices on the International Stage ( Cham : Palgrave Macmillan , 2018 ), pp. 173 – 192 .
11 Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity , p. 119.
12 West, Room
The distorted identities of leprosy within the Order of Saint
age of Latin colonisation. 50 After the sick brethren of Saint Lazarus had been killed in battle, there were apparently no other leprous knights to replace them or to fill the office of master of the Order. The Order thus needed to be sustained by its healthy members.
Pope Alexander IV and his successors in the decade between 1255 and 1265 progressively managed to suppress the military role of the sick in the Order of Saint Lazarus. It is indeed striking how papal diplomacy from then onwards used different, more normative words. Up to 1255, papal bulls and
In many ways the Crimean War was the first of the new industrial wars, but it also retained many characteristics of the old ‘gentlemanly war.’ Diplomacy played a major role and prevented it from becoming a more generalized European war. ‘In contrast to the wars of the twentieth century, but in common with most European wars in modern history up to the nineteenth century,’ diplomatic historian Winfried Baumgart wrote, ‘the outbreak of the Crimean War did not stop the frantic and continuous diplomatic
Women such as Julia Stimson and Helen Dore Boylston were motivated by both a desire for travel and adventure and a wish to prove themselves as professional women. They met the challenge of wartime nursing service, and the sometimes-chauvinistic responses of medical men to their presence in the ‘zone of the armies’, with a combination of diplomacy and indifference.
This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that
influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the
Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book
provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine
studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity
and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of
quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions
had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the
construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the
configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread
of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and
differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in
Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking
domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global
English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources,
bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various
Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the
secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of
epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.
particular, he refers to Douglas McCalla’s argument that established
stories and images tend to ‘dominate understanding long after
research has called them deeply into question’ and there is ‘a need to
retell the story on a different basis altogether’.7 The Anglo-Russian
Hospital, as seen through Cotton’s experiences, provides a window
into seldom-acknowledged aspects of military nursing work – the
politics and diplomacy of wartime caregiving – which appear contradictory to traditional accounts that portray medical and nursing
services as neutral and either very heroic or
contrast, the history of the eleven
ISCs until 1903 – also the subject of this chapter – has been dealt with
by quite a number of scholars. Most studies shed light on the influence
which these ISCs had on the shaping of interstate public health diplomacy5 and how it came to exacerbate the ‘South–North health divide’.6
Other established scholarly works, such as Peter Baldwin’s study of
contagion and the state in Europe, make use of the ISC records to
illustrate the strategies adopted by the modern European states to
prevent the spread of epidemics as well as to
Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power
John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez
historiography follows different lines of research. For example,
studies on modern quarantine have been put at the centre of works on
international health diplomacy and public health bodies preceding the
World Health Organization, as well as on the European colonial expansion and the sanitary regulation of the pilgrimage to Mecca.2 On the other
hand, Foucaultian theoretical interpretations and approaches have led to
redefinitions of lazarettos as paradigmatic ‘disciplinary’ and ‘confinement’
institutions, and have in general triggered sophisticated investigations
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
. This case study challenges
post-colonial scholars’ hegemonic views of nurses’ agency within
Western humanitarian diplomacy.5 Western nurses did not always act
as agents of their governments’ interests abroad. It was a far more
complex and fascinating story than previously realised.
Joining the Convoy
The decision to volunteer offered exotic travel, adventure, new professional horizons and an opportunity for service, but the roads that led
Stanley and Hughes to China differed in significant ways.
Two China ‘gadabouts’
Although raised in a middle-class family