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Coreen Anne McGuire

the ILO, a Diplomacy of Expertise ’, Journal of Modern European History , 7 : 2 ( 2009 ), 174 – 196 , p. 177. 91 Timmermans and Berg, The Gold Standard , p. 22. 92 Macnaughton and Carel, ‘Breathing and Breathlessness’. 93 Faull et al., ‘Breathlessness and the Body’. 94 Edgar King to Fred Swift, 20 November 1923. Somerset Miners’ Association, Bristol University Library Special Collections, DM 443, Box 6. 95 For my original analysis of this case see McGuire , C., ‘“ X-Rays Don’t Tell Lies”: The Medical Research Council and the Measurement of

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Coreen Anne McGuire

, Special Report Series No. 221) ( London : His Majesty’s Stationery Office , 1937 ), p. 20 . 10 Concert pitch was also standardised as A = 440 in the 1930s. See Gribenski , F. , ‘ Negotiating the Pitch: For a Diplomatic History of A, at the Crossroads of Politics, Music, Science and Industry ’, in F. Ramel and C. Prévost-Thomas (eds), International Relations, Music and Diplomacy: Sounds and Voices on the International Stage ( Cham : Palgrave Macmillan , 2018 ), pp. 173 – 192 . 11 Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity , p. 119. 12 West, Room

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
The distorted identities of leprosy within the Order of Saint Lazarus
Rafaël Hyacinthe

age of Latin colonisation. 50 After the sick brethren of Saint Lazarus had been killed in battle, there were apparently no other leprous knights to replace them or to fill the office of master of the Order. The Order thus needed to be sustained by its healthy members. Pope Alexander IV and his successors in the decade between 1255 and 1265 progressively managed to suppress the military role of the sick in the Order of Saint Lazarus. It is indeed striking how papal diplomacy from then onwards used different, more normative words. Up to 1255, papal bulls and

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Carol Helmstadter

Introduction In many ways the Crimean War was the first of the new industrial wars, but it also retained many characteristics of the old ‘gentlemanly war.’ Diplomacy played a major role and prevented it from becoming a more generalized European war. ‘In contrast to the wars of the twentieth century, but in common with most European wars in modern history up to the nineteenth century,’ diplomatic historian Winfried Baumgart wrote, ‘the outbreak of the Crimean War did not stop the frantic and continuous diplomatic

in Beyond Nightingale
Christine E. Hallett

Women such as Julia Stimson and Helen Dore Boylston were motivated by both a desire for travel and adventure and a wish to prove themselves as professional women. They met the challenge of wartime nursing service, and the sometimes-chauvinistic responses of medical men to their presence in the ‘zone of the armies’, with a combination of diplomacy and indifference.

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Canadian military nurses at Petrograd, 1915–17
Cynthia Toman

particular, he refers to Douglas McCalla’s argument that established stories and images tend to ‘dominate understanding long after research has called them deeply into question’ and there is ‘a need to retell the story on a different basis altogether’.7 The Anglo-Russian Hospital, as seen through Cotton’s experiences, provides a window into seldom-acknowledged aspects of military nursing work – the politics and diplomacy of wartime caregiving – which appear contradictory to traditional accounts that portray medical and nursing services as neutral and either very heroic or

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
John Chircop

contrast, the history of the eleven ISCs until 1903 – also the subject of this chapter – has been dealt with by quite a number of scholars. Most studies shed light on the influence which these ISCs had on the shaping of interstate public health diplomacy5 and how it came to exacerbate the ‘South–North health divide’.6 Other established scholarly works, such as Peter Baldwin’s study of contagion and the state in Europe, make use of the ISC records to illustrate the strategies adopted by the modern European states to prevent the spread of epidemics as well as to

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Abstract only
Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power
John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez

historiography follows different lines of research. For example, studies on modern quarantine have been put at the centre of works on international health diplomacy and public health bodies preceding the World Health Organization, as well as on the European colonial expansion and the sanitary regulation of the pilgrimage to Mecca.2 On the other hand, Foucaultian theoretical interpretations and approaches have led to redefinitions of lazarettos as paradigmatic ‘disciplinary’ and ‘confinement’ institutions, and have in general triggered sophisticated investigations on the

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
Susan Armstrong-Reid

. This case study challenges post-colonial scholars’ hegemonic views of nurses’ agency within Western humanitarian diplomacy.5 Western nurses did not always act as agents of their governments’ interests abroad. It was a far more complex and fascinating story than previously realised. Joining the Convoy The decision to volunteer offered exotic travel, adventure, new professional horizons and an opportunity for service, but the roads that led Stanley and Hughes to China differed in significant ways. 210 Two China ‘gadabouts’ Although raised in a middle-class family

in Colonial caring