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Soft culture, cold partners
Author: Carla Konta

The book represents the first comprehensive account of the public and cultural diplomacy campaigns carried out by the United States in Yugoslavia during the height of the Cold War. Based on extensive multinational archival research, as well as private papers and personal interviews, this book charts the reasoning behind the US campaign and the impact it had on specific Yugoslav communities and individuals. American soft power, as a form of cultural power, deliberately sought to ‘open up’ a relatively closed society through the provision and diffusion of liberal traditions, ideas, and ideals. Tito and his Party allowed USIA and State Department cultural programs to enter Yugoslavia, liberated from Soviet control, to open cultural centres and pavilions at its main fairs, to broadcast Voice of America, and have American artists tour the country. Exchanges of intellectual and political personnel helped foster the US–Yugoslav relationship, but posed severe ideological challenges for both countries. By providing new insights into porous borders between freedom and coercion in Tito’s regime, the book shows how public diplomacy acted as an external input for Yugoslav liberalization and dissident movements. Meant for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the cultural Cold War, international relations, and diplomacy, this book fills a gap in the literature by looking at the political role of culture in US–Yugoslav bilateral relations, analysing the fluid links between information and propaganda, and the unintended effects propaganda can produce beyond the control of producers and receivers.

Carla Konta

racial inequality in America, like Soviet propaganda suggested, coped with artists’ personal motivations, usually looking for personal success, and race or gender equality. Scholars working on public or cultural diplomacy more broadly usually focused on specific musicians, genres, or groups. Penny Von Eschen studied Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, and Duke Ellington’s impact abroad; 7 Lisa Davenport and Ingrid Monson explored the value of jazz calling out the civil rights agenda in front of audiences worldwide; 8 while Clare Croft and Danielle Fossler

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
Abstract only
Lorena De Vita

establishing diplomatic relations with Israel while promoting its interests in the Arab world and stepping up as one of main donors contributing, for example via the UNRWA and the German Red Cross, to improving life conditions for Palestinian refugees. The GDR, in contrast, had not. In focusing so centrally on anti-Israeli and anti-West German propaganda for the Arab world, the SED regime lost sight of the multiple channels that Bonn’s (often economic) diplomacy was pursuing in the region, managing to reach out simultaneously to Israel, the Arab states and the Arab League

in Israelpolitik
Suetyi Lai and Li Zhang

5 Public diplomacy of the European Union in East Asia Suetyi Lai and Li Zhang Introduction When public diplomacy broadly refers to attempts by one government to influence foreign publics, governments from Europe have been among the first to practise it, for example with the establishment of the Alliance Française in 1883 and of the British Council in 1934. Yet the public diplomacy of the EU as a collective institution appeared much later, while studies of public diplomacy itself focus mostly on the country level. This chapter is devoted to understanding the

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
America, Britain and the United Nations during the Congo crisis 1960– 1964

In 1962, Congo was catapulted into the international consciousness as the scene of conflict and confusion when a civil and constitutional crisis erupted just a week after the independence ceremony. The breakdown of law and order began when the Congolese army, the Force Publique, mutinied against their Belgian officers, leading to violence and chaos in the capital Leopoldville. This book reinterprets the role of the United Nations (UN) Organization in this conflict by presenting a multidimensional view of how the UN operated in response to the crisis. The United States (US) and Britain were directly involved with formulating UN Congo policy, through an examination of the Anglo-American relationship. The book analyses how the crisis became positioned as a lightning rod in the interaction of decolonisation with the Cold War, and wider relations between North and South. It establishes why, in 1960, the outbreak of the Congo crisis and its successive internationalisation through UN intervention was an important question for Anglo-American relations. The book highlights the changing nature of the UN from 1960 to 1961. It focuses on the emergence of a new US policy in New York. Discussing the role of United Nations activities in the Congo (Operation des Nations Unies au Congo), it explains why military incursions into Katanga in September, and again in December of 1961, proved damaging to the Anglo-American relationship. The invigoration of the Secretariat, demands of the Afro-Asian bloc, Operation UNOKAT, and efforts to construct a Western friendly regime in the Congo are also discussed.

Evgeny Roshchin

3 The ethics of friendship in early European diplomacy Surprising as it may sound, Humanist discourse in early modern Europe operated with a range of linguistic conventions that signalled the existence of a concept of friendship that was not only distinct from but also often entirely excluded the possibility of the contractual concept discussed in the previous chapter, despite sharing its key terms – ‘friendship’ and ‘amity’. The conventions that determined its distinct conceptual identity stemmed from the realm of ethics and morality, which many believe to be

in Friendship among nations
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

I deal with two – to my mind – poorly understood journalistic practices in situations of extreme violence. The first is a type of lexical dependence – that is, how the language journalists typically use to describe war is borrowed from war-related rhetoric developed in other fields (humanitarian aid, diplomacy, or human rights advocacy), sometimes without being aware of it, and hence not always appreciating the relevance of such appropriation. The second is

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

, North Korea and various other countries today use ‘Westphalian diplomacy’ and the ‘geopolitics of nations’ – European inventions – to question the hierarchy of this European system led by the US. From our point of view, it was exactly this convergence and normative homogenisation in the inter-state system, on the one hand, and the increasing power of states that question American exceptionality and centrality using rules authored by the US itself, on the other, that began to threaten the global power of the US. This obliged the US to make an

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

enforceable at the global level . We know what this looks like because it is how the US has behaved for much of the last eighty to a hundred years. Now we have two major powers, much like we did during the Cold War (which is not to say we are entering another Cold War, the mutual dependence of the US and Chinese economies making that unlikely). As China’s influence, its diplomacy, its money and its power flow into all areas of the international political system, so it will be harder and harder to persuade either indifferent or reluctant states that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rethinking Europe’s strategies and policies
Authors: Weiqing Song and Jianwei Wang

Since the mid-1990s, the European Union has defined the Asia-Pacific as one of its key strategic targets on its ambitious road towards global power. The EU has ever since made consistent efforts to implement strategies, policies and activities in the Asia-Pacific. Over the past decades, big changes have taken place on both sides and the wider world. It is high time to evaluate the EU’s performance in its Asian policy. In fact, the EU is at crossroads with its Asia Pacific policy. On several aspects, the EU is compelled to redefine its interests and roles, and rethink its strategies and policies towards the dynamic and ever-important Asia-Pacific region of the contemporary world. This volume addresses this theme, by elaborating the general context, major issues and countries in the EU’s Asia-Pacific policy. It covers issues and areas of traditional security, economy and trade, public diplomacy, and human security and focuses on the EU’s relations with China, Japan, the ASEAN countries and Australasia.