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Susan M. Johns

of Worcester portrays both the countess Mabel and Stephen’s queen Matilda as proactively involved in the negotiating process. Both the queen and Mabel are portrayed as supporting their husbands, negotiating with each other through messengers. It is striking that there is no disparaging comment, only recognition of their actions as peacemakers, and indeed power brokers, involved in careful diplomacy.41 Later in the twelfth century Petronella countess of Leicester was also involved in the military campaigns of her husband.42 The main subject of Jordan Fantosme

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
The symbolism of largesse
Jenny Benham

, played an important role in Anglo-French diplomacy. They seem to have done so, however, not before or during negotiations or immediately after an agreement had been struck, but more as an affirmation, after a few months or even a year had elapsed, that relations were still cordial. 54 To take one example, in August 1158 Henry II and Louis VII negotiated an agreement ( pactio ) for the

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

period was one of intense diplomacy and one in which they both experienced the tricky task of balancing the aims and goals of the papacy and the church with the secular needs and demands of their kingdoms. Thirdly, both the Danish and English kings faced the problematical issue of owing allegiance to powerful neighbours: Henry II to the kings of France, and Valdemar to the German emperor. A large part

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

meaning of peace is not restricted to being the antonym of war. A more useful way of approaching success or failure is to view peace-making and diplomacy as a web of different relationships that contributed to ultimate success or failure. Althoff has already explored this phenomenon in terms of group bonds and personenverbandsstaat and his conclusions are clearly applicable to

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Colin Veach

immediate concerns than the settlers’ activities in Meath. The expansion of Meath could begin in earnest. Hugh thereafter mounted a concerted effort to exploit and enhance his stature in Ireland through a pragmatic combination of diplomacy, conquest and settlement. The initial conquest of Meath had forced many of the Irish to flee the new colonial lordship. However, Hugh’s territory was useless without a local labour force. There is no evidence to suggest that Hugh was capable of attracting enough immigrant labour to make his lordship profitable. In 1175, the Treaty of

in Lordship in four realms
Jenny Benham

king’s envoys to discuss peace. 40 The correspondence of Ralph de Diceto, dean of St Paul’s London, with Walter of Coutances often finds its way into the narrative of Diceto’s historical work, thereby supplying useful information on Walter’s activites and his involvement in Angevin diplomacy. In one of Walter’s letters to Diceto, we are told that he was present at the conference

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

, Chronica , iii, 64; Howden, Gesta , ii, 136. 2 For some examples of this from Genoese diplomacy, see Codice diplomatico della repubblica di Genova , i, nos 195, 279, 280, 282; ii, nos 58, 59, 101. 3

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
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Kriston R. Rennie

active outcome of forged relations between the spiritual centre in Rome and numerous French monasteries. This situation represents a complex and prolonged process of diplomacy, politics, pragmatism, and administration over many incipient centuries. The sum of its parts makes the whole. And the whole structure, growth, and practice of medieval monastic exemption, as it has been presented here, shows the papacy as a central contributor to the organisational life, operations, and identity of medieval monasticism. Notes

in Freedom and protection
Jenny Benham

hostages were rarely recorded simply because they were rare occurrences. There are compelling reasons why exchanges of hostages may have been a rarity. Consider the identity of hostages. In all cases of peacemaking and diplomacy where hostages are mentioned, the intention was to guarantee agreements through the giving of ‘valuable’ people: men, women or children whom the donor

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Jenny Benham

himself, like any other medieval ruler, could be involved in international diplomacy and this could hinder, delay or bias any final judgement. For example, in 1189 when the papal legate sent to mediate between Henry II and Philip Augustus threatened the French king with excommunication, Philip simply replied that he was not frightened and that the legate threatened him only because he loved

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages