The Smith College Relief Unit, Near East Relief and visions of Armenian reconstruction, 1919–21
, Florence Snow, Helen Thayer and Helen Whitman.
5 See A. D. Krikorian and E. L. Taylor’s data compilation and analysis, ‘Ninety-six Years Ago Today’, Armenian News Network , 16 February 2015, www.groong.org/orig/ak-20150216.html (accessed 20 March 2020).
6 B. Little, ‘An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian Responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era’, First World War Studies 5:1 (2014), 1–16.
7 For example, special issue of First World War Studies 5:1 (2014); D. Rodogno, ‘Non-state Actors’ HumanitarianOperations in the
Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts , 2nd edition (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 434.
15 “Office of Global Justice,” accessed October 1, 2014. www.state.gov/j/gcj/index.htm .
16 See “HumanitarianOperations,” accessed April 25, 2014. www.state.gov/t/pm/iso/c21542.htm .
17 See The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federation of Russia, “The Report on the Human Rights Situation in the European Union,” December 6, 2012, accessed August 1, 2014. www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/F6501F42C40A25EE44257ACC004971FC . For analysis of the report see
, and medical services to millions of starving people. Eventually, a UN peacekeeping force took over stability operations in 1993; however, the partnership between the United States and UN would be tested as a UN operation under independent US military command (to capture a warlord) led to the deaths of eighteen US servicemen. As dramatized in the US film Black Hawk Down , the bodies of these servicemen were mutilated and dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. These events were broadcast around the world on CNN and would color future humanitarianoperations in
Displacement and the humanitarian response to suffering: reflections on aiding Armenia
-state Actors’ HumanitarianOperations in the Aftermath of the First World War: The Case of the Near East Relief’, in F. Klose (ed.), The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 185–207.
12 A good starting point is B. Taithe and J. Borton, ‘History, Memory and “Lessons Learnt” for Humanitarian Pactitioners’, European Review of History , 23:1–2 (2016), 210–24.
happened fast, and left unsatisfied scholars from other disciplines interested in reading overviews on the history of humanitarianism. Tired of waiting, one political scientist bravely ventured into history and, in 2011, published Empire of Humanity . 6 Michael Barnett connected the antislavery and missionary movements of the nineteenth century to post-Cold War humanitarianoperations and the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863, to the emergence of the major international humanitarian organisations of the twentieth century. The level of
modern, technical, transnational and secular endeavour. 28 Along similar lines, Keith Watenpaugh has argued for the exceptionality of Western humanitarian interventions on behalf of post-genocide Armenians in the Middle East, stressing the extent to which a process of transformation in humanitarian practices took place. 29 Both Cabanes’ and Watenpaugh’s arguments claim a significant shift from wartime to post-war humanitarianoperations. However, such an emphasis on this period as a ‘break’ tend to obscure significant elements of continuity in practices and agents
Russian imperial responses to Armenian refugees of war and genocide, 1914–15
of Tiflis, was to coordinate the work of the committee.
This organisation was responsible for collection of donations, transportation of the refugees from the frontline to the interior, establishment of food stations on routes of mass population movement, and sanitary-medical assistance to the displaced and the refugees (particularly prevention of epidemics during humanitarianoperations). 54 The Caucasus Committee opened food and tea stations, as well as medical stations on the Igdir–Etchmiadzin–Erivan–Yelenovka–Dilijan–Aghstev route for refugees coming from
of suffering and humanitarian action to gain international legitimacy’. 50 For Ian Smillie, aid to Biafra was a ‘historical feat’ of bravery, but ‘an act of unfortunate and profound folly’. 51 Other writers, however, point out that although the humanitarian air bridge undoubtedly strengthened the Biafran war effort, it is difficult to assess the exact quantity or value of weapons brought in this way, and so the military significance of the humanitarianoperations remains uncertain. 52
The harmful consequences of food aid were not evident at the time, because by
found in the formal creation of the ESDP in 1999
(a development inspired partly by reactions to perceived European
over-dependence on the US during the Kosovo conflict). Once the member
states had declared that the EU was prepared to take on certain military
tasks (largely relating to peace-keeping and humanitarianoperations)
and identified force goals, a process was set in motion whereby it
In late April 1993, a UN
Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit (UCAH) was set up in Luanda to
serve as the coordinating body for all humanitarianoperations. It was
to support the efforts of the operational UN agencies, while mobilising
increased participation by other organisations. Some 50 UN agencies and
NGOs conducted humanitarianoperations in Angola. To cite a few