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The Smith College Relief Unit, Near East Relief and visions of Armenian reconstruction, 1919–21
Rebecca Jinks

, Florence Snow, Helen Thayer and Helen Whitman. 5 See A. D. Krikorian and E. L. Taylor’s data compilation and analysis, ‘Ninety-six Years Ago Today’, Armenian News Network , 16 February 2015, www.groong.org/orig/ak-20150216.html (accessed 20 March 2020). 6 B. Little, ‘An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian Responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era’, First World War Studies 5:1 (2014), 1–16. 7 For example, special issue of First World War Studies 5:1 (2014); D. Rodogno, ‘Non-state Actors’ Humanitarian Operations in the

in Aid to Armenia
Jean-Hervé Bradol and Marc Le Pape

The fourth chapter focuses on Rwandan refugees in Zaire. Between 1994 and 1996, all international attempts to persuade them to return failed. In October 1996, Rwanda and the movements opposing President Mobutu launched a military offensive in east Zaire and then advanced towards Kinshasa. How were the refugees affected by this offensive? How did they react? A great many of them were repatriated to Rwanda, whereas countless others fled into the interior of Zaire. This chapter examines the humanitarian operations deployed during this period – from the destruction of the refugee camps in October and November 1996 to the final wave of refugees who walked 2,000 km to the border between Zaire and Congo-Brazzaville to escape their pursuers.

in Humanitarian aid, genocide and mass killings
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Through the eyes of field teams’ members
Jean-Hervé Bradol and Marc Le Pape

the siphoning off of a not-insignificant proportion of this aid into the war economy. As preparations for the commemoration ceremonies got underway, the two authors of this book were in no doubt that they would be questioned about Médecins Sans Frontières’ humanitarian operations and strategies, not only in Rwanda before, during and after the April to July 1994 genocide, but

in Humanitarian aid, genocide and mass killings
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Displacement and the humanitarian response to suffering: reflections on aiding Armenia
Peter Gatrell

-state Actors’ Humanitarian Operations in the Aftermath of the First World War: The Case of the Near East Relief’, in F. Klose (ed.), The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 185–207. 12 A good starting point is B. Taithe and J. Borton, ‘History, Memory and “Lessons Learnt” for Humanitarian Pactitioners’, European Review of History , 23:1–2 (2016), 210–24.

in Aid to Armenia
Abstract only
Jo Laycock and Francesca Piana

modern, technical, transnational and secular endeavour. 28 Along similar lines, Keith Watenpaugh has argued for the exceptionality of Western humanitarian interventions on behalf of post-genocide Armenians in the Middle East, stressing the extent to which a process of transformation in humanitarian practices took place. 29 Both Cabanes’ and Watenpaugh’s arguments claim a significant shift from wartime to post-war humanitarian operations. However, such an emphasis on this period as a ‘break’ tend to obscure significant elements of continuity in practices and agents

in Aid to Armenia
Russian imperial responses to Armenian refugees of war and genocide, 1914–15
Asya Darbinyan

of Tiflis, was to coordinate the work of the committee. This organisation was responsible for collection of donations, transportation of the refugees from the frontline to the interior, establishment of food stations on routes of mass population movement, and sanitary-medical assistance to the displaced and the refugees (particularly prevention of epidemics during humanitarian operations). 54 The Caucasus Committee opened food and tea stations, as well as medical stations on the Igdir–Etchmiadzin–Erivan–Yelenovka–Dilijan–Aghstev route for refugees coming from

in Aid to Armenia
The Balkan experience
Martin A. Smith

found in the formal creation of the ESDP in 1999 (a development inspired partly by reactions to perceived European over-dependence on the US during the Kosovo conflict). Once the member states had declared that the EU was prepared to take on certain military tasks (largely relating to peace-keeping and humanitarian operations) and identified force goals, a process was set in motion whereby it became

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Eşref Aksu

humanitarianism In late April 1993, a UN Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit (UCAH) was set up in Luanda to serve as the coordinating body for all humanitarian operations. It was to support the efforts of the operational UN agencies, while mobilising increased participation by other organisations. Some 50 UN agencies and NGOs conducted humanitarian operations in Angola. To cite a few

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Orphans, refugees and Norwegian relief in the Soviet Armenian Republic, 1922–25
Inger Marie Okkenhaug

worked alongside NER in the Armenian Republic. These included a Norwegian orphanage, established and run by the nurse, midwife and missionary Bodil Biørn. Biørn, who had arrived in Anatolia in 1905 in the employ of the German Deutscher Hülfbund’s Mission, established an orphanage in Alexandropol (Leninakan/Gyumri) in the north-western part of Armenia in 1922. 4 Norwegian relief was small and unassuming compared to NER’s humanitarian operation, and it was financed by private funds from Norwegian women. Even so, it aimed for modern, international standards, and for

in Aid to Armenia
Jean-Hervé Bradol and Marc Le Pape

–24 July 94’, 28 July 1994. 14 The activities of all the contingents were studied by a team of specialists tasked with evaluating humanitarian operations in Rwanda, Tanzania and Eastern Zaire. See Borton et al. , Humanitarian Aid and Effects , p. 40 and pp. 58

in Humanitarian aid, genocide and mass killings