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Jannika Brostrom

1999. The International Force for East Timor was a multi-nation humanitarian operation led by Australia and authorised under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It was established in response to the ‘scorched earth campaign’ perpetrated by Indonesian-backed militia forces following East Timor’s vote for independence. This campaign destroyed over 80 per cent of East Timorese infrastructure, caused the death

in Violence and the state
Mark Webber

There are some marginal exceptions on this score. An OSCE mission was established in Chechnya in 1995, although Russia declined to renew its mandate in early 2003. Russia has also permitted a number of UN humanitarian operations and Council of Europe delegations to visit Chechnya. 105 D. Trenin, ‘Russia and

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
The Balkan experience
Martin A. Smith

found in the formal creation of the ESDP in 1999 (a development inspired partly by reactions to perceived European over-dependence on the US during the Kosovo conflict). Once the member states had declared that the EU was prepared to take on certain military tasks (largely relating to peace-keeping and humanitarian operations) and identified force goals, a process was set in motion whereby it became

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Timothy Edmunds

mobile armed forces, capable of participat -ing in international peace and humanitarian operations, anti-terrorist actions and responding to natural disasters. 31 These priorities were mirrored and taken forward by a new reformist defence minister, Boris Tadić, who in March 2003 outlined a ten point plan for defence reform. This also made reference to the development of smaller

in Security sector reform in transforming societies