seize upon and sift through textual
traces, oral liturgies, experiential entanglements, and graphic
imaginaries. On offer is a visual hermeneutics that renders details with
a twist. Here, haunting images resonate with oracular expression, prior
certainties echo limiting doubts, and the force of the past sounds out
the fleeting, the fragmentary, and the transitory.
All this is shored up by a vulnerable
From orthodox ‘populism studies’ to critical theory
Paul K. Jones
‘egalitarian and anti-intellectual’ in their rejections of the formal liturgies of more orthodox churches. Again moving in parallel with Hofstadter, he locates within this cultural context William Jennings Bryan, the leader of the 1890s Populists, as a ‘religious as well as economic champion of the West’.
Bell here stresses the historical contingency of a Bryan-like moralism's achieving such overtly political expression. Bell invokes US exceptionalism himself at this point: ‘the
of music as the means of access to a realm beyond the sensuous, not, as he did in the Beethoven pieces, in terms of wordless instrumental
music that is free of the compulsion to relate to what words may say, but instead
in terms of the church music tradition deriving from Palestrina, which relies on
the setting of liturgical texts. The inconsistency between these positions could
only be overcome by making a substantial link between what is ‘said’ by wordless music and the content of liturgy.
Hoﬀmann’s defensible point is that music discloses dimensions of self and
have had the concomitant effect of ensuring that religion remains in the intellectual domain of the masculine symbolic, where, as Jantzen notes, it serves to
underwrite and reinforce the domination of the phallus (1999: 197). However,
Kristeva is more attentive to believers, and to the psychological and material bases
out of which certain beliefs arise, than she is to the object of belief (Jantzen, 1999:
197). Hence, she recognises the semiotic presence in religious discourses, in the
hymns, iconography, liturgy, art, and ritual which are so central to