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Palm Sunday processions
Eyal Poleg

:1–9) The Gospel of Matthew was read during the Palm Sunday procession and served as the rationale for the day’s liturgy. A comparison between the biblical narrative (with parallels in Mk 11:1–11; Lk 19:28–38; Jn 12:12–16) and its liturgical re-enactment, however, may result in a few raised eyebrows. If ‘The liturgy was the primary context within which medieval Christians heard, read and understood the Bible’, 1 then why are many of the liturgy’s crowning moments nowhere to be found or marginalised in the biblical narrative; where are elements that defined the day in

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
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Gender, self, and representation in late medieval Metz

Performing women takes on a key problem in the history of drama: the ‘exceptional’ staging of the life of Catherine of Siena by a female actor and a female patron in 1468 Metz. These two creators have remained anonymous, despite the perceived rarity of this familiar episode; this study of their lives and performances, however, brings the elusive figure of the female performer to centre stage. Beginning with the Catherine of Siena play and broadening outward, Performing women integrates new approaches to drama, gender, and patronage with a performance methodology to trace connections among the activities of the actor, the patron, their female family members, and peers. It shows that the women of fifteenth-century Metz enacted varied kinds of performance that included and extended beyond the theatre: decades before the 1468 play, for example, Joan of Arc returned from the grave in the form of a young woman named Claude, who was acknowledged formally in a series of civic ceremonies. This in-depth investigation of the full spectrum of evidence for female performance – drama, liturgy, impersonation, devotional practice, and documentary culture – both creates a unique portrait of the lives of individual women and reveals a framework of ubiquitous female performance. Performing women offers a new paradigm: women forming the core of public culture. Networks of gendered performance offered roles of expansive range and depth to the women of Metz, and positioned them as vital and integral contributors to the fabric of urban life.

Liminality and the Ascension of Christ in Anglo-Saxon literature
Author: Johanna Kramer

This book offers readers a new understanding of the methods of religious instruction and the uses of religious texts in Anglo-Saxon England, capturing the lived significance of these texts to contemporary audiences. An examination of Anglo-Saxon texts based on their didactic strategies, succeed at teaching theology, and blended cultural influences allows us to evaluate both celebrated and neglected texts more even-handedly and in a new light. The book first deals with the history and character of the theology of Christ's Ascension. It traces the history of Ascension theology from its scriptural roots to its patristic elaborations and to its transmission in Anglo-Saxon England, presenting those doctrines and themes that become most relevant to insular authors. The history of Ascension theology shows that Anglo-Saxon authors make deliberate and innovative choices in how they present the inherited patristic theology to their contemporary audiences. The book then contends that both the martyrologist and the Blickling homilist recognize the importance of liminality to Ascension theology and use the footprints as the perfect vehicle to convey this. It also examines the ways in which Anglo-Saxon authors construct spatial relationships to establish symbolic relationships between three major Christological events: the Ascension, the Harrowing of Hell, and Christ's Entry into heaven. Analysing individual Rogationtide and Ascension homilies, both Latin and vernacular, the book moves from the formal preaching of theology to the spatial practices of Rogationtide liturgy to the popular beliefs about boundaries and the earth.

Episcopal authority and the reconciliation of excommunicants in England and Francia c.900–c.1150
Sarah Hamilton

-century episcopal collection of law and liturgy, usually, if anachronistically, known as the ‘commonplace book’ of Archbishop Wulfstan of Worcester (1002–16) and York (1002–23): Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 265 (hereinafter C ) and Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Barlow 37 (hereinafter D ). 9 C was compiled at Worcester in the third quarter of the eleventh century, while D

in Frankland
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

Vanishing Past: Studies in Medieval Art, Liturgy and Metrology presented to Christopher Hohler (Oxford: BAR, 1981), p. 52; idem, ‘Towards an iconology of croziers’, in D. Buckton and T. A. Heslop (eds), Studies in Medieval Art and Architecture presented to Peter Lasko (Stroud: Sutton, 1994), pp. 36–7. On the other hand Chassel is definite: seals were designed to convey an individual’s notion of functions and power: Chassel, ‘L’usage du sceau’, p. 86. This issue is difficult to resolve, since the relationship of the individual who owned a seal with the craftsman who made

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
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Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

service books. Carolingian initiatives were influential, as indicated in the capitulary Admonitio generalis , which advocated the singing of Roman chant, cantum Romanum . 93 In practice, however, there remained great diversity within the Carolingian world throughout the ninth and tenth centuries, with elements of older Gallican practice adopted variously into the Roman rite in different parts of Francia and, in Italy, both Milanese and Beneventan liturgy retaining distinctive traits. 94 Practice was therefore highly localised, as is evident from the great variety

in Neighbours and strangers
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Dame Jinty Nelson . . . An appreciation
Paul Fouracre and David Ganz

Inauguration in Early Medieval Europe. From dux populi to athleta christi’ . Although she almost never refers to this work, and certainly never sought to publish it, it remains an outstanding treatment of the subject. Importantly, the research gave her an understanding of the political resonance of the liturgy in the early Middle Ages and a thorough grounding in that intellectually rigorous scholarship

in Frankland
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Three Advent Sunday sermons
Eyal Poleg

former substantiating their message, the latter a prerequisite in order to make the Bible relevant to their audiences. This was done in tandem with other forms of biblical mediation: preachers acted within sacred time and space, with sermons traditionally being part of the celebration of the liturgy; preaching and exegesis were often practised by the same people for similar aims. The interplay between authority and contextualisation, between Bible, audience, and preacher, stands at the core of this chapter. Preaching was a vital form of biblical mediation all

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
Boundary rituals, community, and Ascension theology in homilies for Rogationtide
Johanna Kramer

programmatic teaching of Ascension theology. This chapter moves in its analysis from the conventional and formal ways of teaching theology (homilies conveying patristic doctrines) to the spatial and ritual practices of Rogationtide liturgy (relic processions, field perambulations and blessings, agricultural prayers), and, finally, to popular religious rituals and beliefs about the importance of the land and its boundaries (field perambulations, agricultural healing rituals, boundary marking). From these sources, we can see that the teaching of

in Between earth and heaven
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

priests must have been versatile people, capable of managing their multiple roles and positions within different circles. What they learned before their ordination to a church went further than theology and liturgy and enabled them to fulfil important functions. However, because of their central role within communities, when their activities and behaviour did not match expectations – either of their lay neighbours or of the higher echelons of the ecclesiastical hierarchy – social cohesion would be seriously affected. In other words, priests all over western Europe

in Neighbours and strangers