constitution in order to provide a firmer footing for the state of urgency; 2 and to deprive terrorists (initially those with dual nationality, later all French nationals) of French nationality. These two related but distinct articles were imagined in order to provide a firm response to terrorist attacks, but also to embarrass the political right into supporting constitutional reform.
Once the dust of the Versailles speech had settled, the dual offensive was doubly offensive to the ‘usual suspects’ (the rebel Socialist deputies known as the frondeurs , Martine
‘nationalities’): fifty-five minorities and the Han majority, which today numbers 92 per cent of the population. Historically, China divided the world into a ‘them’ and ‘us’ dichotomy, of the civilised ( 文明 ) and the barbarian ( 野蛮人 ). The further you moved from the centre of China, the more uncivilised the people became.
In contrast to the Soviet Union, which established a system based on federal republics with a theoretical right to secession, the PRC instituted a system of limited territorial autonomy to manage ethnonational differences. Regional
obtain the equivalent status of military prisoners for foreign citizens of enemy nationality interned in special camps by the governments of most of the belligerent countries. In this way the Genevan Committee’s direct intervention was extended to the civilian population too. 12 The negotiations for entry to the camps, the gathering of information, the transport of medicines and food rations were conducted not only with Britain and the United States but also with Germany, which had signed the Convention in 1929 and had not withdrawn after Hitler’s accession. Through
the Irish economy is
considerably more open and that the Taiwanese economy is considerably more protected. This suggests considerable underlying differences
in the nature of state developmental approaches in both cases.
Cultural contexts of economic development
Taiwan’s experiences of state formation and ethnic politics clearly differ
from any norm. In 1896 Taiwan was ceded to the Japanese Empire
and remained under colonial rule until after the Second World War.
The dominant sense of ethnic nationality in Taiwan – The Republic
of China (ROC) – has developed in
certain types of Dominion nationality had been created, no other
Dominion had conceived a truly national citizenship. Canada had created a
Canadian nationality but only with regard to re-immigration into the jurisdiction and also in relation to the appointment of Canadian members to the Court of
International Justice.33 Kohn has also pointed out that ‘in several of the Dominions
disabilities and restrictions had been imposed upon natives of other parts of the
Empire, but these had been directed exclusively against persons of coloured race
and were not designed to affect
this position (despite the loss of its American colonies) well into the twentieth. This precocious and fortuitous development meant that Nairn was able to argue that the question of nationality in England was never addressed because it was never seriously raised as a vehicle for modernisation (Nairn, 1993 : 137).
What was offered in its place was what Benedict Anderson characterised in general as ‘official nationalism’ (Anderson, 1991 : 83). Nairn, returning to Gramsci, characterised this phenomenon as ‘folklore from above’ (Nairn, 1993 : 174
manifested in a common culture.’1 Stalin concluded that because multilingual Russia did not meet all of these criteria that Russia was not a
single nation – unlike Georgia, where he came from. That same year
Stephen Brown, a Jesuit, published two essays – ‘What is a Nation’ and
‘The Question of Irish Nationality’ – that discussed the extent to which
the Irish case fitted criteria for nationhood identified by ‘anthropologists
and sociologists’.2 In essence such definitions examined how and in what
contexts people might be presumed to share a particular
on Irish arts and
crafts, on musical instruments, cottage furniture and súgán chairs that
would not be out of place in The Tailor and Ansty, the ribald memoir
of country life by Eric Cross that O’Faoláin championed.17 In a 1941
editorial he argued that one can talk about nationality until one is blue
in the face and get no nearer the fact, ‘but when somebody makes a
chair that is patently an Irish chair, and not a Birmingham chair, that
is Nationality’.18 The cultural artefacts he championed were chosen for
their ordinariness. New ‘Irish’ designs, he argued, should
the labouring population had to be accommodated within
Gibraltar. Those Gibraltarians who had once lived in La Línea and crossed the
M1710 - CONSTANTINE TEXT.indd 233
Community and identity
Table 7.2a Civilian population by place of birth and nationality, 1921–61
Place of birth
, produced in India, just as India is very
often, but not always, foregrounded as a cultural reference in the works.
Not surprisingly, catalogue essays and reviews about art from India tend to
revolve around the question of the artist’s cultural identity and ‘Indianness’.
Sometimes this question is posed in a meta-reflective way, which underscores
the generality and urgency of the problematic. In Zehra Jumabhoy’s phrasing:
‘What constitutes a “diaspora artist” for instance? Or, to put it another way,
what makes someone “Indian”? Is it based on ethnicity, nationality, what