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Alistair Cole

constitution in order to provide a firmer footing for the state of urgency; 2 and to deprive terrorists (initially those with dual nationality, later all French nationals) of French nationality. These two related but distinct articles were imagined in order to provide a firm response to terrorist attacks, but also to embarrass the political right into supporting constitutional reform. Once the dust of the Versailles speech had settled, the dual offensive was doubly offensive to the ‘usual suspects’ (the rebel Socialist deputies known as the frondeurs , Martine

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
Neil Collins and David O’Brien

nationalities’): fifty-five minorities and the Han majority, which today numbers 92 per cent of the population. Historically, China divided the world into a ‘them’ and ‘us’ dichotomy, of the civilised ( 文明 ) and the barbarian ( 野蛮人 ). The further you moved from the centre of China, the more uncivilised the people became. Autonomy In contrast to the Soviet Union, which established a system based on federal republics with a theoretical right to secession, the PRC instituted a system of limited territorial autonomy to manage ethnonational differences. Regional

in The politics of everyday China
Silvia Salvatici

obtain the equivalent status of military prisoners for foreign citizens of enemy nationality interned in special camps by the governments of most of the belligerent countries. In this way the Genevan Committee’s direct intervention was extended to the civilian population too. 12 The negotiations for entry to the camps, the gathering of information, the transport of medicines and food rations were conducted not only with Britain and the United States but also with Germany, which had signed the Convention in 1929 and had not withdrawn after Hitler’s accession. Through

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Abstract only
Bryan Fanning

the Irish economy is considerably more open and that the Taiwanese economy is considerably more protected. This suggests considerable underlying differences in the nature of state developmental approaches in both cases. Cultural contexts of economic development Taiwan’s experiences of state formation and ethnic politics clearly differ from any norm. In 1896 Taiwan was ceded to the Japanese Empire and remained under colonial rule until after the Second World War. The dominant sense of ethnic nationality in Taiwan – The Republic of China (ROC) – has developed in

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Laura Cahillane

certain types of Dominion nationality had been created, no other Dominion had conceived a truly national citizenship. Canada had created a Canadian nationality but only with regard to re-immigration into the jurisdiction and also in relation to the appointment of Canadian members to the Court of International Justice.33 Kohn has also pointed out that ‘in several of the Dominions disabilities and restrictions had been imposed upon natives of other parts of the Empire, but these had been directed exclusively against persons of coloured race and were not designed to affect

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
Abstract only
National traditions and political dilemmas
Ben Wellings

this position (despite the loss of its American colonies) well into the twentieth. This precocious and fortuitous development meant that Nairn was able to argue that the question of nationality in England was never addressed because it was never seriously raised as a vehicle for modernisation (Nairn, 1993 [1988]: 137). What was offered in its place was what Benedict Anderson characterised in general as ‘official nationalism’ (Anderson, 1991 : 83). Nairn, returning to Gramsci, characterised this phenomenon as ‘folklore from above’ (Nairn, 1993 [1988]: 174

in English nationalism, Brexit and the Anglosphere
Bryan Fanning

psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.’1 Stalin concluded that because multilingual Russia did not meet all of these criteria that Russia was not a single nation – unlike Georgia, where he came from. That same year Stephen Brown, a Jesuit, published two essays – ‘What is a Nation’ and ‘The Question of Irish Nationality’ – that discussed the extent to which the Irish case fitted criteria for nationhood identified by ‘anthropologists and sociologists’.2 In essence such definitions examined how and in what contexts people might be presumed to share a particular

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

on Irish arts and crafts, on musical instruments, cottage furniture and súgán chairs that would not be out of place in The Tailor and Ansty, the ribald memoir of country life by Eric Cross that O’Faoláin championed.17 In a 1941 editorial he argued that one can talk about nationality until one is blue in the face and get no nearer the fact, ‘but when somebody makes a chair that is patently an Irish chair, and not a Birmingham chair, that is Nationality’.18 The cultural artefacts he championed were chosen for their ordinariness. New ‘Irish’ designs, he argued, should

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Creating the Gibraltarian
Stephen Constantine

the labouring population had to be accommodated within Gibraltar. Those Gibraltarians who had once lived in La Línea and crossed the M1710 - CONSTANTINE TEXT.indd 233 9/3/09 14:33:25 234 Community and identity Table 7.2a Civilian population by place of birth and nationality, 1921–61 Place of birth 1921 1931 1951 1961 British subjects Gibraltar UK/IFS/Eire Indiaa Malta Morocco Spain Others Total 13,874 1,344 101 289 87 812 174 16,681 13,702 1,063 92 196 94 841 158 16,146 14,660 1,820 112 91 220 2,712 276 19,891 14,999 1,814 98 63 232 2,983 315 20

in Community and identity
Anne Ring Petersen

, produced in India, just as India is very often, but not always, foregrounded as a cultural reference in the works. Not surprisingly, catalogue essays and reviews about art from India tend to revolve around the question of the artist’s cultural identity and ‘Indianness’. Sometimes this question is posed in a meta-reflective way, which underscores the generality and urgency of the problematic. In Zehra Jumabhoy’s phrasing: ‘What constitutes a “diaspora artist” for instance? Or, to put it another way, what makes someone “Indian”? Is it based on ethnicity, nationality, what

in Migration into art