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Saul Newman

understanding of the individual and his place in the world – one that was no longer cemented by a traditional cosmic order based on divine authority. Instead, the individual was seen as autonomous and self-determining, and as having essential moral and rational capacities that would emancipate him from arbitrary political authority and religious mystification. The metaphysical foundationalism that characterised the pre-modern era gave way to a belief in the universality of reason and the unlimited capacities of humanity. Man replaced God, and reason and morality supplanted

in Unstable universalities
Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

the Scottish case. Attempts to limit Scotland to a particular theoretical model risk losing sight of the importance of aspects of Scotland itself. Certainly, Scotland can be considered to have seen itself as a nation in the pre-modern era (unquestionably the elites of that nation did; there is less evidence about what the masses thought – no one was asking them). Furthermore, a sense of Scottish national identity was not diminished by the Treaty of Union in 1707 and certainly civic Scotland maintained a strong sense of self throughout the next three hundred or more

in Scotland