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Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.

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Benjamin J. Elton

commentaries and rulings by subsequent generations of rabbis, who exercised a great deal of flexibility and creativity in their interpretations. Great figures such as Maimonides and R. Yosef Karo codified these legal conclusions in collections, which became authoritative, and were in turn commented upon, most significantly by R. Moses Isserles who – by adding glosses stating Ashkenazi custom – made the Shulhan Arukh acceptable to both Sefardi and Ashkenazi Jews.1 In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of this rabbinic

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Joe Cleary

Catholicism’ may obscure more than it reveals. Do changes of the kind described above actually represent the death of Catholicism in Ireland or rather the unravelling of the Devotional Revolution Catholicism constructed after the Great Famine (1845–​50)? And if that Devotional Revolution Catholicism is now in free fall, might some different version of Catholicism emerge in its place? After all, the Catholicisms of the pre-​modern era, the Counter-​Reformation, the Penal Law and pre-​Famine era, and of the Devotional Revolution period were of quite different character, and

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Benjamin J. Elton

traditionalist wing of the acknowledgement school was restrained by its traditionalism from accepting modernity completely or uncritically, and first and foremost Adler was a traditionalist. Although Adler adopted modern attitudes and methods, they did not dislodge his traditional views. He encouraged Wissenschaft but also wrote pilpul, and interpreted sacrifices symbolically but also looked forward to carrying them out in practice. In this regard he was the spiritual and intellectual successor of his father, who combined the old learning of the pre-modern era with university

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li, and Samuel S. Sutherland

discussion of medieval slavery and unfreedom, see Alice Rio , Slavery After Rome, 500–1100 ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2017 ); Reuven Amitai and Christoph Cluse , eds., Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1000–1500 ce ) ( Turnhout : Brepols , 2018 ); and Thomas J. Macmaster, ed., A Cultural History of Slavery and Human Trafficking in the Pre-Modern Era (500–1450) , (London: Bloomsbury Academic, forthcoming). 57 On censuales , see Stefan Esders, Die Formierung der Zensualität: Zur kirchlichen Transformation des

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany