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The debate over the Immaculate Conception
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

Conflict over the Immaculate Conception was one part of the debate about theology among Victorian Christians; it was also an aspect of the conversation about the nature of woman. Roman Catholics, who were required to believe in the Immaculate Conception, defined a woman who was unchanging in her sinlessness, while Protestants asserted that sinfulness was integral to each human being. This key moment in Victorian religious history, which has been largely overlooked, shows how English Christians reacted to a religious dogma with no direct scriptural evidence. This controversial topic was the one most likely to encourage broad participation from non-Anglican Protestants. Roman Catholics had a generally positive response, especially after some initial hesitation, but Protestants resoundingly rejected it. Advanced Anglicans were ambivalent: many believed the Virgin Mary to be without sin but were hesitant to declare dogmatic a belief with no scriptural basis. This debate also helps illuminate attitudes of Victorian Christians about the relationship between sexual intercourse, the body, and sin.

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
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Encountering Irigaray
Morny Joy

the principal motivation that has informed my writing of these studies on Irigaray. The questions that intrigue me as a philosopher of religion concern Irigaray’s challenge to traditional religious dogmas and practices. I have selected facets of Irigaray’s oeuvre that have not been treated in great detail elsewhere. It is the theme of love, specifically a love that is divine, that resonates in Irigaray’s ethical and spiritual work. This focus takes it beyond the principally psychoanalytic and secular interests that have been the centre of most of the past attention

in Divine love
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John Lever and Johan Fischer

about kosher than their Danish counterparts. This is most likely due to the fact that kosher markets are large and expanding in the UK, with many Jewish groups 171 172 Re l igi on , r e g ul at i on , c onsumpt ion living in increasingly bounded neighbourhoods, where Jewish identity is to a large extent maintained and developed through increasingly strict forms of kosher supervision and consumption. In Denmark the relatively small Jewish community is more dispersed, and here more of our informants saw kosher as religious dogma. There are many similarities between

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

maternal and that this characteristic gave them an influence over the public sphere. Chapters 2 and 3 demonstrate the coherence of Catholics and Protestants respectively. The Catholic unity was challenged, however, by the declaration of the Immaculate Conception in 1854. Chapter 4 examines the English reception of the Immaculate Conception, which was the only new Marian dogma in this period. This key moment in Victorian religious history, which has been largely overlooked, shows how English Christians reacted to a religious dogma with no direct scriptural evidence. This

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Rosemary O’Day

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:36 Page 8 1 Historiography contemporary to the English Reformation, 1525–70 Introduction On the face of it, it might seem that the Reformation, of its nature, rejected history. And so in a sense it did, or at least the force of recent precedent. After all, the new religion involved a break with that recent past – denial of tradition as an authority for religious dogma, practice and doctrine; a denial of papal authority. But it is no less true that the English Reformation used history – an interpretation of the past – to

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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John Lever and Johan Fischer

synagogue in Didsbury three times on the Sabbath and also on holidays and during festivals. He was brought up in a kosher home and suggests that he still tries to keep as much of the tradition as he can, but that he has to a large extent gradually been assimilated; he describes himself as ‘pretty relaxed’. The family do not run a kosher household, he suggests, primarily because his wife is secular and against any type of religious dogma; he also states that it would have been impossible to lead a harmonious married life if he ‘kicked up a fuss about kosher food all the

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Ulrike Ehret

‘satanic’ character of the Jews using the very authority of Christianity, the Bible, as proof. The central purpose of the Katechismuswahrheiten was therefore to explain such phrases and to justify the relationship between Christianity and Judaism. Its main argument intended to instruct the reader that ‘Christianity has never been a Jewish religion’.56 It was a deliberate and intelligent fusion of Rosenberg’s racial outlook and Catholic religious dogma: the faithful were called on to recognise Rosenberg’s errors in his own terminology, while the choice of the catechism as

in Church, nation and race
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The Veda as an alternative to the Bible
Dorothy Figueira

. It is to be remembered that the Romantics held that the simplicity of religious dogmas defined the original state of man and its corollaries that monotheism was anterior to polytheism and primitive revelation had progressively degenerated. Once a people has unfolded its spirit to its fullest expression – from the Romantic point of view – it has fulfilled its role in history and only ‘repetition’ (revivals), stagnation and decay could follow. Müller's conclusions concerning the Veda recapitulated this central Romantic thesis. Moreover, Romantic

in Chosen peoples