Richards’s purported sexual indiscretion, and
the gossip and scandal that circulated about it, reveal about the
power structures of the society within which it occurred? At its
core, the case revolves around an individual’s transgressions,
if not overtly sexual, then certainly overstepping the carefully
prescribed bounds of intimacy and appropriate courtship behaviours.
Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.
The idea of Brighton as a hot-bed of radical class-consciousness in inter-war Britain is an unconventional one. That the dominant images of working class England in the middle years of the twentieth century are 'northern' or metropolitan is thanks to a flowering of community and cultural studies for which the research of Mass Observation provided important antecedents. This book argues that a consideration of Richard Hoggart's critics allows us to open up an important set of questions for discussion. It commences with an exploration of class identifications in England since the 1940s. The experience of and meanings attached to class change for individuals across their lives in relation to historically shifting formations of class within cultures. The book then focuses on the twin modernising forces which reshaped working class neighbourhoods in the period between the 1920s and the mid-1970s: slum clearance and council housing. It explores the ways in which people's senses of belonging to and identification with particular neighbourhoods were formed. Conflicts over the transgression of neighbourhood norms regarding acceptable behaviour, arguments over children's noise, over help which went unreciprocated, debts which went unpaid and domestic or intra-family violence were also a feature of neighbourhood life. Through the contested, multivalent remembered experiences of past communities, the complex, relational construction of social memories can be seen. The book also explores the dynamics of working class household economies and examines the continuities which existed between the modern council estates and older districts in terms of cultures of economic and emotional resourcefulness.
Kenya Colony, for the British at least, has customarily been imagined as a place of wealthy settler-farmers, sun-lit panoramas and the adventure of safari. Yet for the majority of Europeans who went there life was very different. This book offers an unprecedented new account of what was – supposedly – the most picturesque of Britain’s colonies overseas. While Kenya’s romantic reputation has served to perpetuate the notion that Europeans enjoyed untroubled command, what the lives of Kenya’s white insane powerfully describe are stories of conflict, immiseration, estrangement and despair. Crucially, Europeans who became impoverished in Kenya or who transgressed the boundary lines separating colonizer from colonized subverted the myth that Europeans enjoyed a natural right to rule. Because a deviation from the settler ideal was politically problematic, therefore, Europeans who failed to conform to the collective self-image were customarily absented, from the colony itself in the first instance and latterly from both popular and scholarly historical accounts. Bringing into view the lives of Kenya’s white insane makes for an imaginative and intellectual engagement with realms of human history that, so colonial ideologies would have us believe, simply were not there. Tracing the pathways that led an individual to the hospital gates, meanwhile, shows up the complex interplay between madness and marginality in a society for which deviance was never intended to be managed but comprehensively denied.
Pupils’ transgression and the spectre of university
Alan S. Ross
Violent aspirations: pupils’ transgression
and the spectre of university
This book has so far been concerned with the function of the school within the
early modern town and, as an intellectual habitat, within the Respublica litteraria.
Pupils have featured as conscientious, if choosy, clients of their region’s educational offer, their behaviour being in line with professional ambitions either
within the context of the early modern town or of the wider employment market for educated men of the Holy Roman Empire’s Protestant regions. At first
sources: as long as sex
was troublesome or taboo it most often took place in secret and
guardians of colonial morality no less than those who undermined it had
much to gain from keeping scandal covered up. In this regard, the dual
endeavour – to prevent and to conceal transgressive sexual unions
- operated in sync, to deny disruptions to the colonial order of things
in appearance if not in actual fact. 10
the British people a colonising race.
Simply for Europeans to have left Europe was transgression of a sort.
While the symbolic significance of the enervated European was particular
to the colonial domain, moreover, it formed nevertheless part of a wider
imperial strain of doubt as teleological visions of progress were
juxtaposed with nightmare scenarios of subversion and collapse. The
of a mortal or
existential threat. Fear of ‘native’ insurrection was echoed
by fear of white transgression. While the delusions of many of the
Europeans admitted to Mathari took ideas around savage Africa to their
(il)logical extreme, others turned these discourses back in on
themselves. In this regard it can hardly be without significance that
while sensitivity to African danger was deemed necessary
’s reaction of shock and disbelief is emblematic of how the omnibus was viewed in the nineteenth-century French cultural imagination: as a place associated with improper female conduct and with different forms of sexual transgression. Many cultural documents present this vehicle as a space of dubious repute, where respectable girls like Claudine could become ‘contaminated’ by the inappropriate behaviour of other, less virtuous women passengers, or, worse, be taken for a woman of loose morals. In fact, by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, despite the fact that many
questions for our understanding of royal ritual. While ritual is generally perceived as a sequence of
intentional gestures within a fairly fixed ceremonial framework,89 here
we have examples of gestures which were not planned, which interrupted an important ceremony, and which were universally admired.
These apparently transgressive tears served as a seal of approval on the
ceremony, proof of its effectiveness in uniting the king with his people.90
Participants’ records of the event have demonstrated the suffusion of
the ceremony with sentiment, the triumph of the