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Carmen Mangion

twentieth century. Homosocial networks within religious cultures were noted places of deep friendship between women. 8 Scholars of women religious (including myself) have often focused on the forbidden practice of ‘particular friendships’. 9 Close relationships within convent discourse were considered transgressive; they were seen as exclusionary and associated with the divisiveness of convent cliques. Academic scholarship has insisted that this transgression was more sexual, and implied that the prohibition of such rules against ‘particular friendships’ forbade sexual

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Abstract only
Cara Delay

improperly dressed. She thus violated social norms and gendered codes of behaviour.18 The suggestion that she may have committed a sexual transgression is also present. This legend’s complex message includes the assertion that young wives and mothers must remain safely at home, their bodies and sexuality successfully contained within patriarchy. In the nineteenth century, fairy belief came to coexist with modern colonial and religious structures and systems. By the early 1800s, the reworking of the Irish landscape and the movement of people into enclosed, controlled spaces

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Cara Delay

]he migration of young Catholic women’, according to Jennifer Redmond, ‘appeared to heighten fears about modern sexual behaviour; emigrants, no longer under the watchful eye of family and community, were at risk of sexual transgression once the bonds of propriety exercised so strongly on them at home were gone.’93 One result of the anxieties of the age was the Free State’s Censorship of Publications Act (1929), which prohibited not only the distribution of any information on contraception but also ‘indecent’ or ‘obscene’ reading.94 Consumers and creators By the late

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Cara Delay

their words. In 1890s Dublin, a parishioner named Mary Flanagan wrote to her parish priest to inform him of the local schoolteacher’s transgressions: ‘I beg to inform you that almost daily during school hours for a long time past, Miss Minnie was in the habit of standing at one of the class room doors talking to Mr. Hayes.’50 Rumours about women who were not living up the ideal of womanhood, mainly in terms of sexual conduct, often made their way to priests and even bishops, thus further complicating the relationship between clerics and women. Gossip about and by

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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Condemnation of Wyclif’s teaching
Stephen Penn

are present according to their substances or natures, but only the species of these, under which species the body and blood of Christ are really contained, not only figuratively or tropically, but essentially, substantially and corporally. Hence, Christ is there truly in his own bodily presence: this must be believed, taught and defended strenuously against all who say the opposite. We therefore exhort you in the Lord, and in our authority we will offer a warning on the occasion of your first, second and third transgressions, and then we will

in John Wyclif
Carmen M. Mangion

example, the mother superior expected obedience, love and respect. The Mercy constitutions advised that sisters were to: obey the Mother Superior as having authority from God, rather through love than servile fear. They shall love and respect her as their Mother, and in order that she may be enabled to direct them in the way of God’s service.20 The mother superior had responsibilities that reinforced her familial function as head of the family, which included maintaining ‘regular discipline’, admonishing ‘with charity those who may transgress’, inflicting ‘penances as

in Contested identities
Hayyim Rothman

yours is yours (Avot 5:13; Tamaret 1929 , 71)’ underlying patriotism, it discredits the very idea of justice. Not only did Israel introduce the world to notions like the ‘image of God’ that all people share, and that the earth was given to all ‘the children of men (Psalms 115:16; Tamaret 1905 , 37),’ but Israel has suffered the most from neglect of these principles. To then affirm the correctness of opposing principles is to support transgressors (Tamaret 1929 , 72). Likewise, when the only ‘people that has until now rejected the sword (Tamaret 1926b

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

world (Heyn 1958 , 159).’ As the rabbis expressed it: when a single life is destroyed, it is as if a whole world was destroyed (Sanhedrin 37a; Heyn 1958 , 9, 39–42, 213–214).’ From the uniqueness and sanctity of the individual human life, Heyn derived two intersecting principles. First, that ends never justify means. Judaism, he wrote, condemns ‘good deeds’ performed by way of transgressions (Sukkot 30a–32b; Heyn 1970, 318 ), holding effects to be impure if they come about by impure means (Heyn 1970 , 193). This is directly implied by the

in No masters but God
Carmen Mangion

propagated by promoters of Catholic religious life for women, which lauded the nun’s separation from the world as a good in itself. Scholars of women religious, whether writing on medieval nuns or modern sisters, have identified how the theoretical boundaries were permeated or transgressed in different times and places. 11 Over the six chapters to this point we have already seen how these boundaries were assailed by Catholic women religious ‘becoming modern’ from the middle of the twentieth century, beginning with applications from modern girls to enter the convent or

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Abstract only
Cara Delay

hotly dismissed with a very red face and a decade of the rosary to be said right up at the altar.128 What girls confessed during these fear-inducing encounters is impossible to know. Hazel Lyder argues that Irish girls’ relationship to Catholicism was complex: although most were true believers, she claims, they feared their priests more than God and thus did not confess fully, particularly when it came to sexual thoughts or transgressions.129 86 irish women ‘Thus’, she concludes, ‘it appears that at the same time girls learned the rituals necessary to practice

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950