I Introduction and Taqrīẓ – Shaykh Gibril F. Haddad
In the name of God, the All-Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
Gentle reader, Peace upon those who follow right guidance!
I am honoured to present the following fatwā or ‘response by a qualified Muslim Scholar’ against the killing of civilians written by the Oxford-based Malaysian jurist of the Shāfi‘ī School, my inestimable teacher, Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti, and entitled Defending the transgressed by censuring the reckless against the killing of civilians .
The Shaykh authored it in a
Like other governmental institutions in the United States, the Supreme Court has evolved considerably in the years since 1789. Indeed, scholars still debate today what the framers of the Constitution originally intended the nature and role of the Court to be. As a result, there is sharp disagreement over whether the Court has transgressed the proper boundaries of its power. It is important, therefore, to understand the ideas that underpinned the creation of the Supreme Court in the first place and how and why it has changed over the years.
assuredly, is his wonderfully ironic pairing of
the logical and the irrational.
Prints are metonymous statements about the pervasiveness of
binary thought, opposites, reversals, and mirrors.
Prints represent a deeply transgressive mechanization of
culture, i.e., the principles biological reproduction
transferred to that of cultural
, changing, in one
Deconstruction and drugs
sense or another, the way that our culture relates to, sees, thinks, perceives
and represents everything. The bigger theme of totality and its transgression is what has prompted this framing of their conjunction. For this to
begin to take effect, we must specify the drug/text this chapter is really on.
The other ingredient, another text, or pharmakon, taken here as a point
of focus, is The Major Ordeals of the Mind (1974) by the French poet,
essayist and artist Henri Michaux.1 In this work he writes-up an account
‘removed by force and ultimately choice from the mainstream public’ (ibid.: 4), and thus differentiated economically and ideologically
while at the same time being treated as a homogeneous category by
‘mainstream’ white society. The churches, for example, largely
reflected the sensibilities of the ‘liberal bourgeois’ and integrationist
aspirations, whereas the informal public spaces provided by the
‘jook joints’, on the other hand, provided both a ‘transgressive’
antithesis to church values and crucial sites for the development of
overtly aware of the transgressive nature built into print and its
production for decades. This is demonstrated through a history of
exhibitions such as Surrender and Penance (1999) and God
(Made Me Do It …) (2009) that use alternative matrix
surfaces, materials and modes of printing with constructions and
various installation systems
For one such publication, see Dellinger,
Smith, Miller and Tampa Museum of Art ( 2014 ). See also Margaret Miller's presentation
‘The Transgressive Mark’ at the Printmaking in
the Expanded Field symposium at the Oslo National
Academy of the Arts in September 2015: http://pitef.khio.no/cr3ativspeaker/margaret-miller/
[Accessed 22 February 2017]. Miller is director of Graphic
without cavil (the core elements) and those which attract controversy (the contested elements).
Moran identifies a number of items:
Rule of law. The government is not allowed to exceed the limits of its own laws or it is judged to be ‘ultra vires’, and procedures exist for citizens and groups to challenge government if it does transgress. The addition of EU law has led government to be cautious to ensure that new laws are compatible with it.
Procedural democracy. These are the rules whereby a government is elected, serves its time in office and
knowledge of the specificities of disciplines and of their
histories, but they are also inherently transgressive and capable of
operating outside the limitations imposed by those
disciplines. 18 In this way, the idea of
the post-disciplinary does not negate the idea of the studio but
considers new approaches to practice initiated by a questioning of
the disciplines within
Public relations . Government has a large public relations machine at its disposal to counter or discredit messages which go against its interests. Alastair Campbell, for example, in his fight with the BBC in 2003, was ruthless in using every trick in the book to ‘win’ his side of the battle.
The law . Thatcher’s government changed the law so that unions could have their funds sequestered if they transgressed new laws on balloting members before strike action. This proved vital in defeating the miners in 1984–85. Labour also passed laws making certain forms of