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Saint Francis and the treatment of lepers in the central Middle Ages
Courtney A. Krolikoski

sanctity with leprosy that would eventually impact Saint Francis. 13 Martin’s interaction with a leper was not an isolated incident in the early Middle Ages. 14 In the sixth century, the Frankish princess Saint Radegund (d. 587) would go further than Martin in transgressing the social boundary associated with the leprous. One day, when a group of lepers arrived at her cloister in Poitiers, Radegund embraced, kissed and gave alms to each of them. Unlike Martin, Radegund’s kiss did not have the power to heal the lepers of their disease. Instead her kiss was the physical

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
How ‘dirt’ shaped surgical nurse training and hierarchies of practice, 1900–1935
Pamela Wood

laden judgements of responsibility, reputation and blame. Substances carrying this kind of symbolic power are often those that in some way cross category boundaries. Pus epitomised a transgression of the wound from the category of healing tissue, to one of decaying flesh. The substance and power of pus can be understood through the anthropological notion of ‘dirt’. This chapter uses the idea of ‘dirt’ to explore how sepsis, particularly in its most dangerous form of pus, shaped surgical nurse training and practice in the 1900–1935 period. Nurse training

in Germs and governance
The leper as a scapegoat in England and Normandy (eleventh–twelfth centuries)
Damien Jeanne

surprising in light of the close association of Christ with this group, as ‘Christus leprosus’. 2 We may wonder: why do sources describe lepers as both the elect of God and transgressors of religious rules? Why are they excluded from the community, taken away from the gates of the towns and at the same time socially included through the care that they receive in leper houses? Could this strange opposition that wavers between glorification and relative rejection be explained by the scapegoat theory of the French historian and anthropologist René Girard (1923–2015)? 3

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
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Stephen Snelders

boundaries. The disease made the sufferer useless for the one purpose of his or her existence –​performing labour. In the stigmatization of the leprosy sufferer, the horrendous nature of the disease, the visible violation of purity, and the transgression of supernatural taboos, all played important roles. However, in the eighteenth-​century framing of the disease and the justification of compulsory segregation, another significant factor was at play. For Europeans, leprosy represented the Other’s most threatening face. The Other’s very occurrence confirmed the bestiality

in Leprosy and colonialism
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Towards an intimate history of special schools for the blind
Fred Reid

education in their schools, the repressive rules and the adverse effect all this had on their subsequent lives. Understandably, these observations are brief and go little beyond matters of fact. On the whole they confirm the key aspects of my own experience: absence of formal sex education, repression of sexual relationships and severe punishment of transgression. Inevitably, however, the testimonies do not reflect on the reasons for such a regime and French has nothing to say on such questions. I wrote my novella, The Panopticon , to fill this gap

in Disability and the Victorians
Medical personnel and the invasion of Europe in the Second World War
Carol Acton and Jane Potter

memoirs, there is a direct correlation between the need to write and the uncovering of war as an activity whose main concern is, as Scarry puts it, ‘injury’ and ‘injuring’.40 In the Second World War the stories told by medical personnel not only tell their experience and that of the wounded, but in doing so disrupt the more comfortable Allied narrative of victory over an evil Nazi machine. Bearing witness to their own trauma and that of those they care for is integral to the transgressive element of these accounts. For Phibbs working on the front lines, and Morris in

in Working in a world of hurt
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Emily Cock

Goldesborough argued that the associations of the pox with the nose were considered actionable in slander cases, since Sir John Doddridge ‘saith that an Action lieth for calling a woman, gouty pockye Whore, and said that the Pox had eaten the bottome of her Belly out, and so it was adjudged that it lieth well for these words, get thee home to thy pokey Wife the Pox hath eaten off her Nose’. 39 Thus the detail of the nose explicitly linked the pox with sexual transgression, where a general abuse of ‘pox/pocky’ might escape charge through ambiguity. Drawing together the

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Historiographical and research political reflections
Lene Koch

scientific responsibility in medical science has become a hotly debated issue in the EU as well as the United States. This trend is often dated to the famous Asilomar conference, which took place in California in 1975. At this meeting geneticists brought the issue of scientific self-regulation to the fore by discussing a moratorium on certain kinds of genetic research. This reflected a moral concern that scientists should again transgress ethical

in Communicating the history of medicine
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The meaning of food to New Zealand and Australian nurses far from home in World War I, 1915–18
Pamela J. Wood and Sara Knight

with caring for the sick. Lack of civilised markers in the serving of meals could represent a form of social deprivation, just as actual shortage of food or lack of variety represented a physical deprivation. In describing the strangeness of bully beef and biscuits, and the sharp scarcity of food, nurses’ accounts often associated these with elements of contamination  – dirt, dust, flies and sickness. In Douglas’s terms, this deprivation and contamination transgressed the boundaries of a social order where food could be placed in recognisable categories, in

in Histories of nursing practice