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Character depiction and direct discourse
Eva von Contzen

follow the conduct book’s advice. The female saints in the Scottish Legendary, in their debates with the pagan rulers, deliberately and audaciously overstep all borders of appropriate, lady-like conversational behaviour:  they do not hold their tongues, they talk back, they insult, they voice their thoughts, and they do so openly and to a social superior. The fact that in the Scottish Legendary these passages are fleshed out raises the question why the poet saw fit to put special emphasis on such transgressive behaviour. The genre conventions of hagiography clearly

in The Scottish Legendary
The case of Trising in context
Mayke de Jong

rumours, true or not, could develop into a scandal and make the crimes in question ‘manifest’, which required a public trial in a (provincial) synod and removal from office if the accusation were proven. The priest in question might try to purge himself with the aid of oath-helpers, but in any case, his reputation ( fama ) would be damaged. In other words, there was a lot of incentive to deal with sexual transgressions by means of a secret confession and penance, amends that would allow the culprit to remain in office and atone for his sins away from the public eye. But

in Hincmar of Rheims
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A poetics of hagiographic narration
Eva von Contzen

Legendary. Not only can the narrator intrude into the story-world but the characters equally transgress their level and address the audience through metalepses. In fact, the success of the Scottish Legendary is in part based on the close interrelationship between the telling and the told. Discourse level and story level are inextricably linked, and they both serve the aims of the compilation, sometimes by transgressing their frames, sometimes by observing them. The Scottish Legendary is rich in narrative, narrativity and tellability, and much more intricate in its forms

in The Scottish Legendary
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The Scottish Legendary and narrative art
Eva von Contzen

medieval and early modern instructive texts as follows: ‘to engage the reader’s minds in agreeable action and pleasant excitement, and at the same time profit the readers by teaching them something useful’.65 The epitome of this double relationship in the Scottish Legendary is the use of romance elements, which ties in with the notion that the poet attempts to tell the legends anew. In fact, a narratological approach and the paradigm of ‘reading for the discourse’ can shed new light on the vexed question of the generic transgressions between hagiography and romance

in The Scottish Legendary
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The narrator in the Scottish Legendary
Eva von Contzen

metanarrative comment.34 The metanarrative instances that occur in the Scottish Legendary fall into three broad, sometimes overlapping, categories: metaleptic, structural, and explanatory. Metalepsis, defined by Gérard Genette as ‘any intrusion by the extradiegetic narrator or narratee into the diegetic universe (or by diegetic characters into a metadiegetic universe, etc.), or the inverse’, describes a transgression or conflation of narrative levels.35 In other words, metalepsis undermines narrative levels: ‘not only is metalepsis a dynamic force rather than a static element

in The Scottish Legendary
Sally Mayall Brasher

respectfully and obediently and transgressions that required punishment included grumbling, slander, heresy, rebellion, abandonment of the order, quarrels with fellow postulants, immorality, and taking advantage of the hospital's assets. 52 There is even a chapter in the CDF and LR on the nature of punishment, at least for female transgressors: they were punished with either a ‘flogging or a swift kick’. 53 The LR gives clear evidence of the active charity practiced by these hospitals. They did not simply wait for the poor and the sick to knock on

in Hospitals and charity
Kriston R. Rennie

enclosure with physical and spiritual boundaries to be respected and never transgressed. 21 Whereas this protectionist mentality is expressed in Jonas of Bobbio’s Vita Columbani , written between 639 and 643, the idea appears even earlier in the writings of Cassiodorus, Gregory of Tours, and Venantius Fortunatus. 22 While the cooperation of external political actors was an intimate feature of the monastic life, this relationship is nevertheless often presented in terms of historic struggles between monks, kings, and bishops for regulating authority within the religious

in Freedom and protection
Sylvie Joye

the more at fault since the king ought to obey the laws, both human and divine. Hincmar presents here a new moral norm, presented as the expression of a ‘natural law’, that brings together all other types of norm: judicial, religious and moral. 32 The treatise projects upon the past a series of imaginative interpretations depicting it as the exact opposite of that natural law. 33 Attitudes in support of transgression are designated by the name of ‘ancient custom’, even in the case of transgressions that are widely accepted, as with abduction. Sources from the

in Hincmar of Rheims
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Dignity and memory
Lester K. Little

of Alberto to a deservedly abrupt, early end. One of these is a very eminent historian who, it turns out, is a Dominican friar. In the course of a lengthy and complex historical study of religion in the age of the communes, his error of relying solely upon Salimbene is surely a minor transgression, but it also indicates in passing a lapse of memory even on the part of the Dominicans, who as we well know went to great lengths in the eighteenth century to get their supposed confrère Alberto canonised. These memory losses on the part of a few local historians and of

in Indispensable immigrants
Susan M. Johns

’s participation in a burlesque of the offence. As such, burlesques reveal ideas about the social order and conceptions of justice in which men participate in burlesques where their offence was dereliction of duty, and women participate for sexual transgressions. 55 Can we really consider the above description a burlesque? Certainly the offence that action described seeks to remedy is sexual transgression but this is against the woman, not by her. The idea that burlesques represent social status and that they involve the subordinate’s shame for having transgressed their social

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages