Richards’s purported sexual indiscretion, and
the gossip and scandal that circulated about it, reveal about the
power structures of the society within which it occurred? At its
core, the case revolves around an individual’s transgressions,
if not overtly sexual, then certainly overstepping the carefully
prescribed bounds of intimacy and appropriate courtship behaviours.
Guanxi and the creation of ‘intentional’ communities
narrative, drawing comparisons between the causal nexuses connecting individual and bureaucratic transgressions and post-mortal punishments in the ‘Jade Record’ and those described and depicted in Yinfu Tan’s Underworld.
The development of Yinfu Tan’s sphere of influence has been rapid and, guided by Di Ya Pek as channelled through his tang-ki , Ah Boon, the temple illustrates new potentials made possible by the escalating dominance of Underworld temples in contemporary Malaysia. The present-day temple complex is sandwiched between two narrow
vernacular pantheons. Under the watchful eye of Hell’s ‘enforcers’, the lower echelons of demon soldiers impose post-mortal punishments on the souls of the recently deceased for moral transgressions perpetrated during their prior incarnations. Inspired by Buddhist cosmology, the tortures inflicted are karmic retributions, a necessary precursor to the transmigration of souls into a new form, human or otherwise. As such, the Chinese Underworld or Hell 3 is distinct from the biblical Hell, and from Hells recognised by other religious traditions.
yours is yours (Avot 5:13; Tamaret 1929 , 71)’ underlying patriotism, it discredits the very idea of justice. Not only did Israel introduce the world to notions like the ‘image of God’ that all people share, and that the earth was given to all ‘the children of men (Psalms 115:16; Tamaret 1905 , 37),’ but Israel has suffered the most from neglect of these principles. To then affirm the correctness of opposing principles is to support transgressors (Tamaret 1929 , 72). Likewise, when the only ‘people that has until now rejected the sword (Tamaret 1926b
world (Heyn 1958 , 159).’ As the rabbis expressed it: when a single life is destroyed, it is as if a whole world was destroyed (Sanhedrin 37a; Heyn 1958 , 9, 39–42, 213–214).’
From the uniqueness and sanctity of the individual human life, Heyn derived two intersecting principles. First, that ends never justify means. Judaism, he wrote, condemns ‘good deeds’ performed by way of transgressions (Sukkot 30a–32b; Heyn 1970, 318 ), holding effects to be impure if they come about by impure means (Heyn 1970 , 193). This is directly implied by the
The importance of the covenant in Scottish presbyterianism, 1560–c.
R. Scott Spurlock
However, the challenges posed by the introduction of the English regime and
the decapitation of presbyterian church government by the prohibition of the
general assembly from 1653 meant the Kirk no longer functioned as a presbyterian church and the nation risked further transgressing its covenanted
responsibilities. In this context, probing questions began to be asked.
Preaching in about 1652 Hugh Binning lamented: ‘What is now the great
blot of our visible church? Here it is, the most part are not God’s children, but
called so; and it is the greater blot
To what extent was Richard Baxter a congregationalist?
church and a private church in the same parish. Basically it transgressed ‘the
Catholick Principles and Interest’ and fostered division and separation.92
His solution, as always: ‘If we would avoid Separations, we must keep up
holy Discipline.’ He then worked his way through ten ‘seeming differences’
with the congregationalists. The last of them concerned inter-parish transfer.
For the first nine differences Baxter had adamantly asserted that none was a
‘real’ difference and all could be easily overcome. But on this final question
‘there is a Practical
‘play out at the expense of the Jewish masses.’ Thus, he asked rhetorically, ‘can a religious [Jewish] person take part in any war, assisting the effort either actively or passively?’ With ‘religious self-understanding,’ he explained, a Jew called to service must reply ‘I refuse because I am a Jew ,’ because the Torah teaches ‘do not kill’ and demands self-sacrifice over transgression (Sanhedrin 74a). He remarks furthermore that Isaiah's vision for the ‘end of days is not in conflict with the present;’ rather, it will be fulfilled ‘ thanks to the world-changing deed
witchcraft in Lancashire were supported by the confession of sixty-year-old Margaret Johnson, made on 2 March before the same justices. Although not mentioned by Robinson, she claimed the Devil had appeared to her as a spirit called Mamilion ‘apparrelled in a suite of black, tyed about with silk points, who offered that if shee would give him her soule hee would supply all her wants’. 5 She too was familiar with the conventions of demonological practice as discussed in numerous European and British treatises on the subject, referring to transgressive sexual practices with
takes leave of them. A Warning for Fair Women employs this devotional book to mark Mistress Saunders’ individual devotional identity, her repentance and return to godliness, visually attaching her to an object meant to be used for the godly purpose of meditation and prayer. It is also used, more importantly, to stage the transgressor's rehabilitation and reintegration into the devotional community of godly mothers from whose ranks she had withdrawn upon getting involved with her seducer, Master Browne, and giving consent to, if not explicitly being an agent of, her