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Women as citizens
Shailja Sharma

current. Though not identical, there is a remarkable symmetry between the views of European corporations and imperia in early modernism and today. The attitude that regards veiling as either hostile, submissive, traditional or unmodern, in other words that regards gender issues as a cultural difference that needs to be eradicated, is not contemporary or an anomaly. It is rooted in historical legal and epistemological categories from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that construct European civilization as both foundational and normative. These categories and

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Justin Carville

  70 4 Refracted visions: Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence Justin Carville In 1999, the Belfast-​based design historian David Brett published a short pithy book on the influence of what Max Weber described as ‘Protestant asceticism’ on architectural design and material culture in post-​Reformation Europe and North America (Brett, 1999; Weber 2002: 112–​22). In the preface to the expanded second edition, Brett acknowledged that the original book was written in the context of the Troubles and his interest in the possibility of a scientific

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Church, State and modernity in contemporary Ireland
David Carroll Cochran

‘Christendom’, which he defines as ‘a civilisation where the structures, institutions, and culture were all supposed to reflect the Christian nature of the society’ (Taylor 1999: 17). In its purest form, this was the confessional state, long the norm across Europe, in which throne and altar were united so that the law privileged a particular Christian Church and enforced its moral teachings. Over several centuries, however, secularism weakened this arrangement and eventually ‘dethroned’ Christendom, a process that often involved violence, especially in Catholic countries

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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Peter Murray and Maria Feeney

reflecting Catholic teaching. Verbal genuflection before the social prescriptions of papal encyclicals was to found in this document although, as Joe Larragy (2014: 201) notes, ‘Catholic social power rather than Catholic social teaching was the prevalent factor in the Irish case and for a long time the formula suited an authoritarian church in a parsimonious state dominated by the rural petit bourgeoisie.’ But times, churches and states change. In 1973, when both parts of Ireland entered what was then the European Economic Community (EEC), a secular, professional

in Church, state and social science in Ireland
Sarah Glynn

responses to western modernism, allowing clerics to build on the existing body of jurisprudence, or, in more radical movements, to go back and reexamine primal texts. There are also large conservative or reactionary groups that resist the use of ijtihad at all and these tend, as well, to discourage overt political action. The Barelwis fall into this group, as do the powerful Tablighi Jamaat, whose emphasis on revivalist missionary work among the Muslim grassroots makes it especially inward-looking. (Tablighi Jamaat is not related to Jamaat-e-Islami – jamaat simply means

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
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Sarah Glynn

socio-economic struggle. Divisions that cut across and hinder that socio-economic struggle also hinder the struggle against racism and discrimination. Although multicultural politics is generally associated with post-colonial immigration, the issues it attempts to address are much older. In searching for the evolution of Marxist ideas about such issues, it is helpful to look at the responses of the early Marxist theorists to the juxtaposition of different national and ethnic groups within European nations and within the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires. Of

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
Peter Murray and Maria Feeney

could more successfully unite. The rise of the atheistic Soviet Union to superpower status, fears regarding the spread of Communism across Europe and divisions which had opened up within the Irish labour movement prompted a wave of Catholic adult education initiatives with trade unionists as their primary initial target audience. To provide such education new institutions with a social science focus –​the Catholic Workers’ College and the Dublin Institute of Catholic Sociology –​were created alongside the colleges of the National University of Ireland. The failure of

in Church, state and social science in Ireland