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Vicky Randall

and Counter-Reformation, the Enlightenment and Modernism. In other words Western identity is overwhelmingly defined by historical references to earlier selves, rather than by geographical comparisons with others. To claim otherwise is to deny the central thrust of Western education over the past one thousand years. 109 In the first few paragraphs of the Saracens Freeman set out his views on Western identity, which were based on the idea of the unity of European history which he learned from Arnold. ‘In studying the records of Greece, of Rome, of medieval Europe

in History, empire, and Islam
The challenges of compassion and the Australian humanitarian campaigns for Armenian relief, 1900–30
Joy Damousi

the ‘apathetic attitude’ of European powers. Closer to home, she believed the fact that the ‘unspeakable horror’ of atrocities experienced by the Armenians had ‘made so little stir’ was ‘a significant sign of the times’. In the first decade of the twentieth century there was a ‘modern craze for new things’, she observed. The Armenian story was considered ‘ancient history’, but the suffering by the Armenian population continued. She was frustrated at how easily atrocities were forgotten and stressed the need to constantly remind the world of the ominous threat of

in Aid to Armenia
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Calculating compassion in war
Rebecca Gill

for the relief of war-time suffering. In theatres of war in nineteenth-century Europe – France, the Balkans – and in Britain’s wars of empire – the Sudan, South Africa – enterprising men and women opened soup kitchens, carried stretchers, nursed the wounded and delivered food and clothing to the destitute. These years saw the now ubiquitous Red Cross emblem first make its appearance on the battlefield

in Calculating compassion
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Susanne Lachenicht, Charlotte A. Lerg, and Michael Kimmage

The end of the transatlantic era? In the eyes of political commentators the Atlantic Community is crumbling. With the election of a US president who, it appears, no longer feels committed to international cooperation – including the role of the United States in NATO – certain assumptions about transatlantic relationships are being called into question. In Europe, too, populist nationalism(s) further fracture(s) the union. Great Britain, in particular, is struggling to reposition itself along European, Atlantic, and

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
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Michael D. Leigh

called upon Buddhist missionaries to go out into towns and villages to campaign against Christianity. Modernism revolutionised attitudes to suffering, poverty, nirvana and the like. Whereas traditional Buddhism represented ‘suffering’ as ‘cosmic suffering’, ‘modernists’ borrowed ideas from Marx, Nietzsche and European Christian Socialists to transform it into ‘social suffering’. Similarly the ‘modernist’ politician Thakin Kodaw Hmain assured Buddhists that if they fought for independence from British rule they could gain

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

hard to distinguish one European from another. They all looked, sounded and smelled the same, lived in the same tree-lined civil lines (the more prosperous section of colonial Mandalay in which European Civilians lived), retreated to Kalaw during the hot season, had their babies in Maymyo Civil Hospital and compared ayahs and punkah-wallahs over cups of Earl Grey tea. In times of danger, Europeans closed rank and huddled together for mutual protection. 7 The Wesleyan missionaries enjoyed hobnobbing with the colonial top

in Conflict, politics and proselytism