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Vicky Randall

and Counter-Reformation, the Enlightenment and Modernism. In other words Western identity is overwhelmingly defined by historical references to earlier selves, rather than by geographical comparisons with others. To claim otherwise is to deny the central thrust of Western education over the past one thousand years. 109 In the first few paragraphs of the Saracens Freeman set out his views on Western identity, which were based on the idea of the unity of European history which he learned from Arnold. ‘In studying the records of Greece, of Rome, of medieval Europe

in History, empire, and Islam
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Michael D. Leigh

called upon Buddhist missionaries to go out into towns and villages to campaign against Christianity. Modernism revolutionised attitudes to suffering, poverty, nirvana and the like. Whereas traditional Buddhism represented ‘suffering’ as ‘cosmic suffering’, ‘modernists’ borrowed ideas from Marx, Nietzsche and European Christian Socialists to transform it into ‘social suffering’. Similarly the ‘modernist’ politician Thakin Kodaw Hmain assured Buddhists that if they fought for independence from British rule they could gain

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Michael D. Leigh

hard to distinguish one European from another. They all looked, sounded and smelled the same, lived in the same tree-lined civil lines (the more prosperous section of colonial Mandalay in which European Civilians lived), retreated to Kalaw during the hot season, had their babies in Maymyo Civil Hospital and compared ayahs and punkah-wallahs over cups of Earl Grey tea. In times of danger, Europeans closed rank and huddled together for mutual protection. 7 The Wesleyan missionaries enjoyed hobnobbing with the colonial top

in Conflict, politics and proselytism