The deployment of print by Dublin Corporation in the mid-sixteenth century could be deemed to mark the arrival of the Renaissance at least as much as the arrival of the duke of Ormond a century later. However, by the time a Dublin printer became active, Renaissance ideas, implicit in the humanist idea of commonwealth, were already well established in the city. One of the ways in which those ideas had embedded themselves in the social fabric of Dublin was through the books that were circulating in the city. The lack of a Dublin printer meant that the Irish Renaissance was shaped in London and as much by economic as by political or cultural forces. New English officials who planned plantation and colonisation in Ireland or thought about how that society might be reshaped often turned to classical and biblical principles of colonisation and social order to re-imagine Ireland.