Germany's political class is marked by a positive and constructive attitude towards European integration. The main objective of European policy was and still is to achieve effective and democratic European co-operation and integration. All governments and the vast majority of political parties contrive their general European policy agenda around the fundamental aim of far-reaching integration towards some kind of political union. A growing literature focusing on the efficiency of Germany's European policy-making has detected structural handicaps and 'failures' owing to the institutional design. The multi-level and multi-actor system clearly testifies a lack of long-term-based policy approaches and strategic policy planning, projection and policy-making. The broader involvement of the federal parliamentary chambers in European Community/European Union (EC/EU) decision-making reflects the fundamental patterns of the governmental level without 'parliamentarising' German EU politics in a way comparable to the Danish Folketing's approach.
This book investigates drone technology from a humanities point of view by exploring how civilian and military drones are represented in visual arts and literature. It opens up a new aesthetic ‘drone imaginary’, a prism of cultural and critical knowledge, through which the complex interplay between drone technology and human communities is explored, and from which its historical, cultural and political dimensions can be assessed. The contributors to this volume offer diverse approaches to this interdisciplinary field of aesthetic drone imaginaries. Sprouting from art history, literature, photography, feminism, postcolonialism and cultural studies, the chapters provide new insights to the rapidly evolving field of drone studies. They include historical perspectives on early unmanned aviation and aerial modes of vision; they explore aesthetic configurations of drone swarming, robotics and automation; and they engage in current debates on how drone technology alters the human body, upsets available categories, and creates new political imaginaries.
The evolution of European integration since 1950 has been considerable. The European Union (EU) has gained in stature, taking on and aspiring to new functions across the policy spectrum and challenging the conceptualisation of the evolving structure for joint problem-solving, deliberation and decision-making. This chapter investigates the legal output of the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament (EP) and the European Commission (EC) as dependent variables. It identifies fundamental trends in the 'demands' made by political actors to use or to refrain from using the EU's para-constitutional resources and opportunities. The chapter explores the long-term trends of the EC/EU system and the respective impacts on EC/EU policy-making in the Member States. It looks at the effective use of treaty provisions and also explores the real 'demand' for different procedural 'offers' or opportunity structures at hand.
This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book takes up traditional approaches to political science. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, it highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, the book explores how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It offers a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. For scholars of international relations, European integration and comparative politics, these evolutions involve looking at both the national level, as in comparative studies, and at the European level, as in integration-related approaches.