Axel Berkofsky

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of EU-Japan security relations from a European perspective. While recognizing shortcomings, including the expectations gap between the EU and Japan that has frequently been problematized, this chapter emphasizes the significance of the recent changes in Japanese security policy, such as the 2013 National Security Strategy, as evidence that Japan does consider the EU and NATO to be important security partners. The chapter analyses the domestic debate and government initiatives, as well as Japan’s expectations for the EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA), and the enablers and inhibitors of closer security ties. This chapter argues that while Japan Europe security cooperation has so far excluded hard security, the changing international security environment and a narrowing perceptions gap should allow deeper cooperation in non-traditional security fields, because Japan would benefit from the European experience of forging consensus in shaping international rules and norms.

in Japan's new security partnerships