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Author: Bryan Fanning

In the last decade Irish society has visibly changed with the emergence of new immigrant communities of black and ethnic minorities. This book draws upon a number of academic disciplines, focusing on the relationship between ideological forms of racism and its consequences upon black and ethnic minorities. Media and political debates on racism in Ireland during this period have tended to depict it as a new phenomenon and even as one imported by asylum seekers. Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest despite a history of colonial anti-Irish racism. Citizenship reproduced inequalities between nationals on the basis of gender and race and ethnicity. The book explores how the processes of nation-building which shaped contemporary Irish society and the Irish state were accompanied by a politics of national identity within which claims of social membership of various minority groups were discounted. It examines the exclusionary and assimilationist consequences of Irish nationbuilding for Protestant, Jewish and Traveller minority communities. The book also considers anti-Semitism in Irish society from independence in 1922 until the 1950s. It examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices. Finally, the book talks about anti-Traveller racism, the politics of Traveller exclusion, the work of SPIARSI, and the efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism.

Author: Bryan Fanning

In the last decade, Ireland's immigrant population grew to more than one in ten. Now in the midst of an economic crisis, the integration of immigrants has become a topical issue. This book offers a detailed account of how immigrants in Ireland are faring. Drawing extensively on demographic data and research on immigrant lives, immigrant participation in Irish politics and the experiences of immigrants living in deprived communities, it offers a thorough study of the immigrant experience in Ireland today. Chapters and case studies examine the effects of immigration on social cohesion, the role of social policy, the nature and extent of segregation in education, racism and discrimination in the labour market, and barriers faced by immigrants seeking Irish citizenship. The book contributes to the field of integration studies through its focus on the capabilities and abilities needed by immigrants to participate successfully in Irish society. It follows two previous books by the author for Manchester University Press: Racism and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2002) and Immigration and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2007).

Author: Bryan Fanning

This book examines the debates and processes that have shaped the modernisation of Ireland since the beginning of the twentieth century. There are compelling justifications for methodological nationalism using research and analysis focused on the jurisdiction of a nation-state. The nation-state remains a necessary unit of analysis not least because it is a unit of taxation and representation, a legal and political jurisdiction, a site of bounded loyalties and of identity politics. The book argues that nationalism in twenty-first-century Ireland is even more powerful and socially embedded than it was in de Valera's Ireland. It considers what kind of Ireland Pearse wanted to bring about. Pearse proposed a model that was very different from the already dominant Catholic model that did much to incubate modern Ireland. Beyond this, Catholicism offered a distinct response to modernity aimed at competing with the two main secular ideologies: liberalism and socialism. Women have been marginalised in most of the debates that shaped Ireland even where they were directly affected by them. One of the most picked-over episodes in twentieth-century Irish history has been the conflict surrounding the Mother and Child Scheme. The book examines this conflict as a starting point of an analysis of the place of women in post-independence Ireland. It further addresses the rise and fall of the Celtic Tiger, the name given to a period of rapid economic growth that was likened to the performance of East Asian 'tiger' economies.

Bryan Fanning

The free movement of EU citizens and the absence of a hard border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland have facilitated easy movement across the island for many migrants. People born in EU countries, and those who have attained EU citizenship, are equally able to live and work on both sides of the border, and a growing number have family, community and employment connections in both jurisdictions. This chapter examines the emerging implications of the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union (Brexit) for the lives of migrants on both sides of the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, reduced rights of residency and access to employment will directly affect EU migrants, while non-EU migrants are also affected by a shifting labour market heavily reliant on migrant workers. In the Republic, internal and external border controls agreed to facilitate EU protections and an ongoing relationship with the UK will have an impact on all migrants in their ability to move with ease, while the labour market also experiences significant shifts.

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Bryan Fanning

This chapter considers recent manifestations of intolerance that claim a liberal inheritance. Contemporary liberal intolerance draws upon the kind of ethnocentric liberalism elaborated on a philosophical basis by Richard Rorty. But independent, practical forms emerged after the attack on the World Trade Centre in 2001 and in the anti-multiculturalism that gained ground in Europe following the murder of Pim Fortuyn in the Netherlands. The chapter draws on Dutch and Irish examples of ethnocentric liberalism, and considers why ethnocentric liberal prejudice towards Muslims was widely condoned in the former but has not been in Ireland, where, in contrast, he identifies anti-Traveller prejudice as an example of this kind of ethnocentric liberalism, and an expression of modern social rules of belonging in the nation-state.

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
Bryan Fanning

This chapter examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers in Ireland have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices and racism. It begins with an examination of responses to Hungarian refugees admitted soon after Ireland ratified the UN Convention. The chapter compares responses to asylum seekers from the late 1990s, when for the first time these began to arrive in Ireland in substantial numbers, to responses to Hungarian, Chilean, Vietnamese and Bosnian programme refugees during the previous four decades. The growing population of asylum seekers in Ireland was soon portrayed as a crisis by politicians and officials and within the media. The asylum seeker dispersal programme amounted to a form of social dumping within which the state took little responsibility for the needs of asylum seekers and host communities.

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Bryan Fanning

This chapter provides a case study of the politics of Traveller exclusion from 1963, with the publication of the Report of the Commission on Itinerancy, to the end of the twentieth century. During the 1980s Ennis Travellers contested what they described as discrimination in the allocation of council housing on a number of occasions. Travellers in the Ennis area had a deep-rooted antipathy to the site because of its proximity to Drumcliffe cemetery where many of their dead were buried. Opposition to Traveller accommodation was justified on an ongoing basis by allegations of violence by Travellers against settled people. Clare County Council, in conjunction with the local authorities in neighbouring counties, sought to develop the camp as accommodation for all Travellers living within a twenty or thirty mile radius of Limerick city.

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Bryan Fanning

Travellers legacy is characterised by the persistence of institutional racism in many areas of social policy, a long-standing denial of Traveller ethnicity and denial of anti-Traveller racism. The account of Travellers set out in the minority report depicted them as a deviant and transgressive underclass. The Report of the Commission on Itinerancy, the Report of the Travelling People Review Body and the Report of the Task Force on the Travelling Community depicted shifts in institutional responses to Travellers. These shifts have influenced equality legislation and responses to new minority communities. The discourses on culture and ethnicity within the Report of the Task Force represented ideological conflicts between dominant monoculturalism and nascent Irish multiculturalism which owed to the influence of Traveller organisations. The Primary Health Care for Travellers Project has identified poverty, poor accommodation and cultural stress resulting from discrimination and exclusion as causes of health inequalities experienced by Travellers.

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Bryan Fanning

This chapter examines efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism. The multiculturalism is characterised by a narrow focus on liberal democratic rights with little emphasis upon racism as a factor in inequality and discrimination. It is argued that the dominant concepts within mainstream Irish equality discourse, 'interculturalism' and 'integration', become detached from their meanings within critiques, originating with Traveller organisations, of racism and cultural assimilation. Interculturalism in education has been promoted by Traveller groups and by the Irish National Teachers Organisation rather than the state. Many of the measures identified with interculturalism in Ireland have emerged within the voluntary sector. The notion that symbolic measures alone constitute a weak multiculturalism is an important point in the Irish context. Racism and inequality prevail unless symbolic multiculturalism goes hand in hand with measures to challenge the structural inequalities experienced by black and ethnic minorities.

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Abstract only
Bryan Fanning

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book locates racism in Irish society within a historical context. It argues that Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest. The book explores how the processes of nation-building which shaped contemporary Irish society and the Irish state were accompanied by a politics of national identity within which claims of social membership of various minority groups were discounted. It considers anti-Semitism in Irish society from independence in 1922 until the 1950s. The book examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers in Ireland have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices. It also examines anti-Traveller racism in Irish society since the 1960s. The book evaluates efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism.

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland