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This book examines the debates and processes that have shaped the modernisation of Ireland since the beginning of the twentieth century. There are compelling justifications for methodological nationalism using research and analysis focused on the jurisdiction of a nation-state. The nation-state remains a necessary unit of analysis not least because it is a unit of taxation and representation, a legal and political jurisdiction, a site of bounded loyalties and of identity politics. The book argues that nationalism in twenty-first-century Ireland is even more powerful and socially embedded than it was in de Valera's Ireland. It considers what kind of Ireland Pearse wanted to bring about. Pearse proposed a model that was very different from the already dominant Catholic model that did much to incubate modern Ireland. Beyond this, Catholicism offered a distinct response to modernity aimed at competing with the two main secular ideologies: liberalism and socialism. Women have been marginalised in most of the debates that shaped Ireland even where they were directly affected by them. One of the most picked-over episodes in twentieth-century Irish history has been the conflict surrounding the Mother and Child Scheme. The book examines this conflict as a starting point of an analysis of the place of women in post-independence Ireland. It further addresses the rise and fall of the Celtic Tiger, the name given to a period of rapid economic growth that was likened to the performance of East Asian 'tiger' economies.

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In the last decade Irish society has visibly changed with the emergence of new immigrant communities of black and ethnic minorities. This book draws upon a number of academic disciplines, focusing on the relationship between ideological forms of racism and its consequences upon black and ethnic minorities. Media and political debates on racism in Ireland during this period have tended to depict it as a new phenomenon and even as one imported by asylum seekers. Ireland was never immune from the racist ideologies that governed relationships between the west and the rest despite a history of colonial anti-Irish racism. Citizenship reproduced inequalities between nationals on the basis of gender and race and ethnicity. The book explores how the processes of nation-building which shaped contemporary Irish society and the Irish state were accompanied by a politics of national identity within which claims of social membership of various minority groups were discounted. It examines the exclusionary and assimilationist consequences of Irish nationbuilding for Protestant, Jewish and Traveller minority communities. The book also considers anti-Semitism in Irish society from independence in 1922 until the 1950s. It examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices. Finally, the book talks about anti-Traveller racism, the politics of Traveller exclusion, the work of SPIARSI, and the efforts to contest racism and discrimination faced by minorities in Ireland as expressions of multiculturalism.

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In the last decade, Ireland's immigrant population grew to more than one in ten. Now in the midst of an economic crisis, the integration of immigrants has become a topical issue. This book offers a detailed account of how immigrants in Ireland are faring. Drawing extensively on demographic data and research on immigrant lives, immigrant participation in Irish politics and the experiences of immigrants living in deprived communities, it offers a thorough study of the immigrant experience in Ireland today. Chapters and case studies examine the effects of immigration on social cohesion, the role of social policy, the nature and extent of segregation in education, racism and discrimination in the labour market, and barriers faced by immigrants seeking Irish citizenship. The book contributes to the field of integration studies through its focus on the capabilities and abilities needed by immigrants to participate successfully in Irish society. It follows two previous books by the author for Manchester University Press: Racism and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2002) and Immigration and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2007).

Bryan Fanning

Bryan Fanning argues that the large-scale immigration into Ireland during the Celtic Tiger period had its roots in a post-1950s nation-building project of economic development which superseded an economically and culturally isolationist Irish-Ireland period. The lack of political debate about this post-1990s immigration is an eloquent silence and Fanning attempts to fill the void by offering an insightful discussion of immigration in the Celtic Tiger period. This chapter focuses on sociological explanations for Ireland's apolitical embrace of social transformation through immigration during the first decade of the twenty-first century. The speed with which this occurred owed much to the economic boom. Prosperity fostered the quiet transformation of Ireland but did not on its own explain the lack of political controversy about immigration and the absence of anti-immigrant politics even when boom turned to bust and the large-scale emigration of Irish citizens resumed. The chapter notes that immigrants who found themselves displaced from Ireland during the economic crash found themselves on the same boats and planes as Irish citizens displaced through unemployment from Ireland. Immigrants who managed to remain in employment seemed to be as integrated or socially included as any other such fortunate members of Irish society.

in From prosperity to austerity
Bryan Fanning

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes that Ireland's twentieth-century nation-building projects stood on the foundations of earlier ones. It examines the influence of Catholicism and the common cause it found with cultural nationalism in post-independence Ireland. The book explores how from the mid-nineteenth century the Catholic Church came to dominate education. Patrick Pearse proposed a model that was very different from the already dominant Catholic model that did much to incubate modern Ireland. The book focuses on an argument that played out between Michael Tierney and Daniel Binchy about King of the Beggars (1938), a biography of Daniel O'Connell by Sean O'Faoláin. It also examines the periodical that O'Faoláin hoped would gaze unflinchingly on the realities of contemporary Irish life.

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

In 1992, Francis Fukuyama declared the end of history, suggesting that with the fall of the Berlin Wall, liberalism had triumphed as the political and economic paradigm across a globalised world. Methodological nationalism is a term used by sociologists to refer to social inquiry which is bounded by political borders. Nationalism, as an ideology, assumed that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations. Nationalism on the inside organises themselves as nation-states and, on the outside, set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states. Sociologists who have focused on nationalism have emphasised shifts from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft within national containers. Marxists envisaged that nationalism and patriotism would be swept aside by proletarian internationalism. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels gave some thought to how Irish nationalism might help to bring about socialism.

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

On 4th August, 1906, in An Claidheamh Soluis, which translates as the sword of light, Patrick Pearse wrote a piece in English imagining the Ireland of 2006. Pearse turned to the parliamentary column, which reported a debate about a bill for the compulsory teaching of Japanese as a second language in seaport towns and cities. Pearse imagined this twenty-first-century Ireland several years before he became a self-appointed prophet of revolutionary blood-sacrifice nationalism. The Irish state that fell short of the Republic Pearse proclaimed in 1916 banished him to the margins of its own national pageants. Pearse's image came to be commemorated on postage stamps and street names. During his years as editor of An Claidheamh Soluis Pearse clashed with the Catholic Church. The clash was over what he saw as an inadequate support for the Irish language from the hierarchy who did not support making Gaelic mandatory in seminaries.

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

Paul Cullen was perhaps as important a maker of modern Ireland as Daniel O'Connell, and in the decades after O'Connell's death, when parliamentary nationalism languished in the doldrums, he was Ireland's most important Catholic leader. Cullen's great accomplishment, Oliver Rafferty emphasises (in 'The Ultramontaine Spirituality of Paul Cullen'), a devotional revolution in Ireland. Cullen as an institutional builder presided over the building of many churches, schools and religious communities. But he also redefined, as Rafferty and a number of other contributors emphasise, Irish public spirituality. Cullen's closeness to Rome helped in various turf wars and also in achieving dominance over other bishops in Ireland. Cullen for his part believed that Catholic emancipation had created the political structures that would enable not just the redress of Catholic grievances but the creation of a theocratic state.

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

In his 1911 novel The Dawn of All, Robert Hugh Benson, an English priest who converted to Catholicism, imagined a future where most of the world had done the same. England had assented to Catholic home rule in Ireland and encouraged its Catholic population to emigrate there. Catholicism had declined everywhere except in Rome and in Ireland, where appearances of a woman in blue were reported at Marian shrines. For more than half a century Catholic sociology articulated influential visions of Ireland's future. Edward Cahill's Framework of a Christian State discussed at length the history of socialist ideas, theories of surplus value and dialectical materialism. The period of influence of the Catholic social thought had coincided with a period of Irish-Ireland, of a post-colonial cultural nation-building project which emphasised economic isolationism and efforts to promote the Irish language.

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Bryan Fanning

The Jesuits launched their journal Studies in March 1912. In its first decade, Studies reflected the Catholic constitutional nationalism that became displaced by Sinn Fein. In the pages of Studies the polarised conflict between Catholicism and liberalism claimed some accounts of the Irish modernisation break down. The Irish century exemplifies and reveals symbiosis as well as conflict between both intellectual traditions. After independence Studies published many articles on the implications of Catholic social thought as set out in the papal encyclicals Rerum Novarum and Quadragesimo Anno. The 1956 IRA border campaign prompted some soul searching about the notion of a united Ireland, a hitherto taken-for-granted aspiration of constitutional nationalists writing in Studies. In a 1978 piece John Brady SJ argued that citizens of the Republic must emphasise that they did not wish to govern Northern Ireland against the wishes of the majority.

in Irish adventures in nation-building