An uncertain balance

After decades without significant changes, in the short period from the May 2014 European elections to the June 2016 general elections, Spanish politics experienced the emergence of new political actors, new electoral dynamics and new issues on the agenda. This chapter aims to synthesise the main changes in Spain’s political system during the crisis, with a special focus on the leftist parties. The first section summarises the evolution of the Spanish left since 2008. The second section addresses the country’s new party system after the 2015 and 2016 general elections and the patterns of interaction among its main actors. The third section analyses the discourse, tactics and ideology of the leftist parties to shed light on the controversial nature of the newcomers. Finally, the analysis focuses on the Spanish left’s attitude towards European integration.

in The European left and the financial crisis