The historical context of the ninth-century Cologne Codex Carolinus manuscript (Codex Vindobonensis 449)
Dorine van Espelo

A unique source in many respects, the Codex epistolaris Carolinus comprises ninety-nine papal letters that were sent to the Carolingian court between 739 and 790. These are mostly addressed to the Frankish rulers Charles Martel, Pippin III, Carloman and Charlemagne. But there are also three letters grouped together in the collection about Adoptionism sent by Pope Hadrian I to the Spanish bishops. The letters shed light on many aspects of the burgeoning Frankish-papal relations in this period. They are therefore indispensable pieces of information on the history of the Franks, Lombards and Rome in the second half of the eighth century. This chapter offers some considerations with regard to its emergence in the episcopal library of Cologne. This chapter briefly addresses the historical background of the creation of the Codex Carolinus in the later eighth century and discusses the re-emergence of the Codex Carolinus in the later ninth century.

in Religious Franks
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Religion and power in the Frankish Kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong

This book, written in honour of Mayke De Jong, offers twenty-five essays focused upon the importance of religion to Frankish politics. It deals with religious discourse and political polemic in studies that take up the themes of identity, and the creative deployment of the language of the Old Testament within Frankish society. The book explores how the use of ethnic rhetoric in a Christian context shaped medieval perceptions of community. It shows that the Carolingian way of dealing with the Adoptionist challenge was to allow a conversation between the Spanish bishops and their Frankish opponents to take place. Charlemagne's role in the Vita Alcuini as a guardian of orthodoxy who sought to settle a controversy by organising and supervising a theological debate was striking. The book also discusses the admonition of an abbot of Frankish origin who came from southern France and made his monastic career in southern Italy. It showcases three letter manuscripts that share certain features but are different in other aspects. The first manuscript is a collection of the Moral Letters from Seneca to his pupil Lucilius , Paris , BnF, lat. 8658A. The book demonstrates that the lists of amici, viventes et defuncti reflected how the royal monastery was interacting with ruling elites, at different levels, and how such interactions were an essential part of its identity. It also examines the context of Monte Cassino's fading into the background, in the conviction that both political and religious concerns were at play.