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Christian Kaunert and Dr Sarah Leonard

This chapter outlines the development of the external dimension of the EU policy on asylum, migration and borders through an analysis of both its normative and policy dimensions, as well as the role of EU institutions, in particular the European Commission, in the policy-making process. The external dimension of the EU asylum and migration policy received a new impetus following the signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997. On 4 November 2004, the Council adopted the Hague programme, which established the objectives to be implemented in the whole Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ), including the asylum and migration policy. According to the supranational policy entrepreneur (SPE) model, a political entrepreneur stands at the policy window in order to propose, lobby for, and sell a policy proposal.

in European internal security