"This book examines the intersection between national and international counter-terrorism policies and civil society in numerous national and regional contexts. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) against the United States led to new waves of scholarship on the proliferation of terrorism and efforts to combat international terrorist groups, organizations, and networks. Civil society organizsations have been accused of serving as ideological grounds for the recruitment of potential terrorists and a channel for terrorist financing. Consequently, states around the world established new ranges of counter-terrorism measures that target the operations of cCivil society organizsations exclusively. Security practices by states have become a common trend and have assisted in the establishment of a “‘best practices”’ among non-liberal democratic or authoritarian states, and are deeply entrenched in their security infrastructures. In developing or newly democratized states (those still deemed democratically weak or fragile), these exceptional securities measures are used as a cover for repressing opposition groups considered by these states as threats to their national security and political power apparatuses. This book serves as a critical discussion accounting for the experiences of civil society in the enforcement of global security measures by governments in the America’s, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Central Asia, Europe (Western, Central, and Eastern), and the Middle East.
Global security architectures and civil society since 9/ 11
Scott N. Romaniuk and Emeka Thaddues Njoku
Since September 11, 2001 (9/11), the so-called “new terrorism” security architecture created immense challenges for community integration, securitizing political dissent, and potentially advancing fundamental social and economic inequalities. The emergence of this new security architecture in the context of terrorism is also intricately linked to what has been referred to as the “age of counter-terrorism.” This chapter examines the development of global security architectures in the context of counter-terrorism (CT) in light of the development of the “new terrorism” security paradigm, and the impact this is having on civil society. It charts the foundation of these cross-national CT security structures – the overt security responses that took form between 2001 and 2006, which have since given way to a greater focus on preventative countermeasures – and explores the supporting discourses that have sprung up around this, before exploring how these bodies and discourses are changing and challenging contemporary politics in new and unexpected ways. This chapter further examines state-level CT as a set of military, discursive, physical, and economic structures.
This book set out to analyze the legacies of the post-9/11 global war on terror, underscoring the impact of the counter-terrorism policy it produces on the operationality of CSOs. It examines countries that have been understudied despite their having one of the most repressive CTMs. It also re-examines other countries, while documenting unique issues that have emerged over the years as a result of the increasing pressures of counter-terrorism policy on CSOs, which was not captured by previous works. The book is also concerned about how CSOs made sense of and reacted to these new government security measures. We discovered from the contribution of authors specific underlying themes that illuminate states’ increasing constraints and exploitation of civil society organizations in the Americas, East and Western Europe, Southeast Asia, MENA and Sub-Saharan region. Thus, in this concluding chapter, we re-examine these themes highlighted in the introduction as a way of summarizing the importance of the discoveries of this book in aiding our thoughts on the intersections between CTMs and CSOs in various parts of the world.
Scott N. Romaniuk, Emeka Thaddues Njoku, and Arundhati Bhattacharyya
This chapter first looks at the emergence of civil society in Bangladesh. It then turns to how 9/11 ushered profound changes in the mindset of individuals regarding the capacity building of states for pre-empting terrorist activities and operations. Finally, it addresses the extent to which an increase in state control has affected the functioning of civil society. Hue and cry has come up from different sections of the civil society regarding blanket imposition of restrictions on free civil society operations. The chapter focuses on Bangladesh, which is facing terrorist strikes, particularly since 9/11.