This chapter focuses on African students in Moscow during early African decolonisation and Cold War. It responds to three major questions: 1) What were Africans seeking in the USSR in human-resource development that they could not find at home? 2) What did they actually discover during their sojourns in the USSR?3) How were the Soviet formal-education programmes important in the Africans’ struggle for full decolonisation (cultural, psychological, economic and political)? The author draws upon his primary methodology of direct field experiences in Moscow during the Khrushchev era, as well as follow-up interviews in Tanzania, Paris, and elsewhere. His research on African students in the USSR during the Khrushchev era is unique for several reasons, including his field-research methodologies (participant observation and interviews) and focus on transnational actors. The chapter’s findings challenge previous scholarship related to African students’ personal, social experiences in the USSR, and Moscow’s significant formal-education programmes related to African needs and priorities as defined by prominent anti-colonial African elites.