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A global comparison

This book examines and compares lobbying regulations currently in place around the world.

This edition covers more countries than the last, compares existing regulations using different measurements, and provides insights into developing or amending lobbying laws.

The book begins by introducing the concept of lobbying regulation, emphasising it is a key aspect of sunshine laws that states throughout the world are establishing. Chapters 1–3 exhaustively examine jurisdictions worldwide that adopted regulations in the 1900s, 2000s and 2010s. Chapter 4 offers novel empirical investigation by investigating if some measurements of the robustness of lobbying laws are more valid and reliable than others, closing with a revamped theoretical conceptualisation of different types of regulatory regimes. Chapter 6, based on our experience of having advised governments worldwide, has a simple, yet significant, objective: to explain to policy makers how best to make or amend a lobbying law. The Conclusion summarises our findings.

This book has two key readerships. The first is academics teaching courses on lobbying and regulatory politics and those researching in the field, given that the first edition was the considered a landmark. The second is the practitioner market. This includes legislators and civil servants who relied on the first edition when developing lobbying legislation and subsequently approached the authors to advise their governments. It also includes lobbyists who relied on the first edition in order to understand the rules in place in jurisdictions that they seek to influence globally.

Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter first outlines the rationale for writing the second edition of the book. It defines key terms and then situates lobbying regulation in the context of other transparency policies such as Freedom of Information, ethics reform and whistleblowing legislation. After considering the theoretical reasons for regulating lobbying (or not), it overviews which countries in the world do (and do not) have lobbying regulations in place. It closes by outlining the main questions that guide the book and its structure.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter looks at the pioneers of lobbying laws: those political systems that enacted them throughout the 1900s, thereby representing jurisdictions that have the longest history of formal lobbying legislation. This includes the US, Canada, the EU and Germany. In this second edition we have substantially updated developments and data presented for the US, Canada and Germany. Of key difference to readers of the first edition will be a full update on developments in the EU, highlighting its Joint Transparency Register, which is held between the Commission and the Parliament. Analysis of the four political systems is divided into three sections. The first offers a brief examination of the history of the country and its nature of governance. The second considers the nature of lobbying in each jurisdiction. The third examines the actual lobbying legislation, focusing on the names of the acts, when they came into existence, the details of the regulations in place, and any changes over time.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter turns to discussion of developments in the states that developed lobbying in the first decade of the 2000s: Lithuania, Poland, Taiwan, Australia, France and Israel. This follows a similar structure Chapter 2, considering the countries’ history and structure of government; the nature of lobbying; and the main aspects of the legislation in place. Readers will note that Hungary, which was reported on in the first edition, is absent from this chapter in this second edition. This is because in 2011, under the leadership of the right-wing populist party Fidesz, the country abandoned its lobbying law which had previously been in enacted in 2006.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter is a major new addition to this edition of the book and examines those jurisdictions that devised laws in the 2010s. This includes: The United Kingdom, Ireland, Austria, Netherlands, Slovenia, Mexico and Chile. Some of the countries that have adopted rules are significant for various reasons. The UK and Ireland initially explored introducing lobbying regulations in the mid-1990s. These were resisted by varying political actors and interest groups but two decades later both countries finally adopted lobbying laws. The Netherlands, ostensibly one of the ‘cleanest’ countries in the world, was the first northern European state to introduce lobbying regulations in 2012. In the global south, Mexico and Chile pioneered regulations in Latin America.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter measures the robustness of sixteen lobbying regulations using four existing indices of robustness and assesses each measurement’s validity and reliability. By robustness we mean how much transparency and accountability a lobbying law guarantees. This allows us to evaluate which of the existing indices ‘best’ measures a regulation’s robustness. Based on the results we develop three theoretical classifications of robustness for states that have lobbying legislation as discussed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4: low-robustness systems, medium-robustness systems and high-robustness systems. We consider how each of the political systems studied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 falls within the different regulatory environments.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Lessons for states and lobbyists
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter offer insights on how to make a lobbying law, which is of value to elected officials, civil servants, lobbyists, interest groups, non-governmental organisations and concerned citizens in jurisdictions without lobbying regulations, or in those considering amending extant regulations. The chapter thus serves as a guide for readers from jurisdictions without regulations seeking to develop them. It also offers insights to those jurisdictions that want to amend their present laws. The evidence used to complete this task is based primarily on our research team’s experience of either appearing before parliamentary committees, or having advised governments and institutions, in: the UK, Ireland, Scotland, the Council of Europe, the European Parliament, the Czech Republic, Serbia and New South Wales. The relatively simple, no-nonsense conceptualisation that is developed offers a guide of what to do, what not to do, and what to look out for in the five key stages: conceptualising the regulation; drafting the bill; finalising the bill; legislative passing of the bill; and implementing the law.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
Abstract only
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy, and Michele Crepaz

This chapter summarises the book’s main findings. Based on a completely updated examination of jurisdictions worldwide, we have developed a more accurate portrayal of what constitutes low, medium and high robustness regulation and which political systems belong in each category. We underline how we have addressed criticisms made against the CPI method of analysis, comparing it with three other indices that measure the robustness of laws in terms of the accountability and the transparency they guarantee. Given the significance of this key transparency policy for democracies worldwide, we close by highlighting the significance of either developing, or amending, lobbying rules using our fivefold typology of conceptualising the bill, drafting it, finalising it, passing it into law and ultimately implementing it.

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)