Virtually the only part of Herbert Gladstone's career that has attracted more substantial interest from later historians was his role as Liberal Chief Whip between 1900 and 1906. Indeed, it is probably true to say that his papers provide a fuller insight than anyone else's into the activities of a party whip. In his own reflections on the outcome of the 1906 election Gladstone gave pride of place to the pact he had negotiated with the Labour Representation Committee. Rising interest in the matter of working-class representation in parliament was another source of Liberal dissension and one that was brought into sharper focus after 1893, when the Independent Labour Party was established. In the course of the 1890s, Gladstone took a lead in arguing the case for greater labour representation in Parliament and in trying to shift the Liberal stance on licensing reform.