Women who wrote and circulated their verse in manuscript sought and stayed within a congenial circle. Carol Barash describes the general profile of late seventeenth- century women who preferred to publish in manuscript rather than with a bookseller as 'usually elite and well educate. Kathryn King studied of the life and complicated literary career of another late seventeenth-century woman poet, Jane Barker. Anne Killigrew's poem 'Upon the saying that my Verses were made by another' has been used as evidence of her involvement in a literary exchange circle and also her indictment of the masculine court culture's ridicule of female ambition. Anne Killigrew was no novice in the world of coterie, courtier and commercial theatrical culture, with its intrigues and rivalries. Her decision to seek 'Fame' led her not to seek publication but to entrust her verses to 'some few hands'.

in Early modern women and the poem

The study of recipe books as a genre has had a long tradition, especially for those interested in early modern women's texts. From her first publication in 1661, The Ladies Directory, Hannah Woolley was consistently in print with her collections of recipes and household management advice, even having one of her works, The Queen-Like Closet, translated into German. The dynamics of the dual function, of setting down established truth while incorporating the 'mode', is illustrated in the books attributed to Woolley. Woolley's texts certainly can be described as familial, if not indeed incestuous, in their relation to each other. In accounts of Woolley's works, printers and booksellers are typically cast as villains, literary 'pirates' who steal, maim and sell into bondage the individual author's words and works and manufacture images to suit the needs of the volume, not the author.

in Reading and writing recipe books, 1550–1800