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Naved Bakali

Islamophobia is a term that frequently describes anti-Muslim racism, as well as the ‘Othering’ of the Muslims in settler societies and European nations from the global North. Increasingly, the term Islamophobia has been used to describe systemic racism and anti-Muslim violence from the global South. This chapter investigates the phenomenon of Islamophobia in Myanmar, which culminated in the Rohingya genocide in August 2017. The accusation of genocide has been denied by the state of Myanmar. Furthermore, recent violence against the Rohingya has been sanitised as an unfortunate consequence of the War on Terror. This chapter examines both institutional Islamophobia, as well as Islamophobia enacted by private actors in Myanmar. The central argument in this analysis demonstrates that the co-dependent relationship between institutional and interpersonal Islamophobia since military rule in Myanmar, in the absence of a strong and unified resistance, contributed to the genocide. This analysis provides insights into the troubling logic used to defend the state-sponsored violence and killing of Rohingya in post-democratic Myanmar and its relationship to the War on Terror.

in The rise of global Islamophobia in the War on Terror
Coloniality, race, and Islam
Editors: and

The so-called ‘War on Terror’ ushered in a new era of anti-Muslim bias and racism. Anti-Muslim racism, or Islamophobia, is influenced by local economies, power structures, and histories. However, the War on Terror, a conflict undefined by time and place, with a homogenised Muslim ‘Other’ framed as a perpetual enemy, has contributed towards a global Islamophobic narrative. This edited volume examines the differing manifestations of Islamophobia, as well as resistance and activism combating it across multiple international settings, spanning six continents. The volume maps out categories of Islamophobia across the global North and South.These are the localised histories, conflicts, and contemporary geopolitical realities in the context of the War on Terror which have influenced and textured the ways that Islamophobia has manifested. This ranges from limited instances of racial violence and hate crimes to more pronounced co-dependent relations between interpersonal and institutional racism that have culminated in genocide. This book presents a nuanced appreciation of specific themes that critically engage with the complexity and evolution of Islamophobia in the War on Terror. It provides up-to-date accounts and analysis of Islamophobia across the global North and South and its impact on the political landscape of differing country contexts. Furthermore, this book explores resistance and the need for activism that confronts interpersonal and institutional racism, with the aim of constructing a more coherent understanding of how to challenge Islamophobia.

Abstract only
Naved Bakali
and
Farid Hafez

This introductory chapter focuses on outlining fundamental understandings and theoretical frameworks, as well as historicising Islamophobia. This unpacking of Islamophobia helps to construct an understanding of the emergence of a globalised Islamophobia and how it manifests in the War on Terror. Furthermore, the chapter explores the co-dependent relationships between interpersonal and institutional forms of Islamophobia that have materialised to embolden the growth of nativism, Islamophobic protest movements, and Islamophobic political rhetoric globally. The Introduction discusses how the synergistic relationship between interpersonal and institutional forms of Islamophobia helps to construct categorisations of Islamophobia across the global North and South which represent similar and differing manifestations that are textured by local histories, colonialism, imperialism, and notions of racial supremacy. The introduction also provides a brief outline of the edited volume and explains which specific sites of Islamophobia from the global North and South are included in the book.

in The rise of global Islamophobia in the War on Terror