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Transnational experiences in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–39
Samuël Kruizinga

The first chapter explores the diverse trajectories taken by eight individuals from eight different European countries, to join the International Brigades in Spain in 1936. Although they were all anti-fascists they each had their own reasons – some political, some personal – for becoming involved. While national fighting units were the starting point, international units inevitably emerged, creating spaces for both international solidarity and international misunderstanding and conflict. The leading role of communists and the Comintern had divided outcomes. Some activists were inspired, educated and hardened by the communist message, but others were repelled by communist ideology and violence. The chapter charts the trajectories of these individuals after they left Spain, following the defeat of the republican armies. Some went on to become leaders of transnational resistance movements elsewhere, while others, who had lost the faith, took very different routes.

in Fighters across frontiers