It is some thirty-five years since the United Kingdom joined what is now called the European Union. What has been the impact of the EU on UK central government? Has it been transformed or merely adapted to new pressures and requirements? This book explores the ‘Europeanisation’ of the work of civil servants and ministers and how they engage with the EU. Drawing on fresh empirical evidence—including interviews with over 200 serving and retired officials and ministers—it offers a comprehensive analysis of the spreading impact of European integration across government. The study is placed in the context of political divisions over the European Union but the book outlines the often neglected way in which the EU has transformed the business of government. This account charts the process from the Macmillan government's 1961 application to join the European Communities through to the end of Tony Blair's premiership. The book examines the character and timing of responses across government, covering the core government departments and also those more recently affected, such as the Ministry of Defence. It argues that central government has organized itself efficiently to deal with the demands of EU membership despite the often controversial party-political divisions over Europe. However, in placing the book's findings in comparative context, the conclusion is that the effectiveness of UK governments in the EU has been less striking.
Between political controversy and administrative efficiency
Kenneth A. Armstrong and Simon Bulmer
European integration has represented one of the most fundamental challenges for politics in the United Kingdom since 1945. Integration has highlighted the problems of, and possibilities for, the re-orientation of foreign policy as part of the United Kingdom's post-war descent from world power status. The authors have argued that two broad patterns of European policy conduct can be identified in the United Kingdom. Under circumstances of a small parliamentary majority, they argued that continued British sensitivity to issues of sovereignty could result in issues of European policy being handled in a highly symbolic, rhetoricised manner. However, they also argued that much European policy did not trigger these sovereignty concerns and was consequently conducted at a more technical level. There are two apparently contradictory patterns evident in the management of British European policy. One is a pattern of centralisation and the other trend is more centrifugal.
The United Kingdom's relationship with the European Union (EU) has been complex and troublesome. The relationship itself is multifaceted: open to historical, political, economic and legal analysis. This chapter sets the scene for the study. It reviews the key events in Britain's relationship with European integration. It highlights the controversies in Britain's relations with the EU and how they bear upon the central focus of the book, namely adaptation in central government. The chapter then examines the different component parts of the relationship by looking at aspects of the reception of European integration in the British polity, and the very different task of projecting British politics into the European arena.
In order to understand the notion of adapting to European integration both within government and in the wider political system, this chapter develops a conceptual framework through reference to ‘Europeanisation’ and institutionalism. Europeanisation dissects the phenomenon of adapting to integration. The discussion augments Europeanisation by using historical institutionalism to explore, over time, the adjustments of UK central government to the EU.
This chapter examines the character of EU governance. What are the rules of the game at the EU level? Where do national governments fit in with EU policy-making? What are the pressures emanating from the EU system of governance that impact upon British central government? This chapter intends to reveal the rules and norms at the EU level within which British central government has to operate. This EU framework is important for a range of reasons, but most centrally because it is the main source of Europeanisation effects.
This chapter commences the study of adjustment within UK central government. It examines the process of coming to grips with integration: from the early 1960s, when the Macmillan government applied for membership to the EEC, up to accession. In examining the adaptation of the UK central government, the discussion argues that Whitehall's adaptation to Europe began well before UK accession.
In sketching out the contemporary features of Whitehall's way of organising for Europe, this chapter concentrates on the three key organisations and the actors connected to them that are responsible for coordinating the handling of EU business above and across departments. These form the hub of the EU policy-making system. Initially, the chapter presents an outline of the contemporary structure and operation of this hub. The second half of the chapter considers the main structural and operational changes to it that have taken place since accession in 1973. The EU policy-making network can be defined in a general sense according to its membership but at any particular time according to the business being handled.
This chapter explores the way in which the EU has impinged upon the inner core of departments most engaged in EU policy-making in UK central government. It prioritises certain parts of the Whitehall European policy-making network. These categories are: an inner core of ministries with extensive involvement in the EU: DEFRA, the Treasury and the DTI; other London-based ministries, which have varying degrees of involvement in EU business; and the ‘territorial’ ministries prior to devolution and subsequent arrangements in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland thereafter.
This chapter deals with the EU's impact upon, and the European policy-making patterns of, the outer core of central government. It considers two departments which have been affected by the EU relatively recently—the Home Office and the Ministry of Defence (MoD)—alongside other departments where the impact has been of longer standing but of a lesser order of magnitude. The Home Office and the MoD are the new institutions of European policy-making in Whitehall. The chapter also considers the role of the territorial/devolved authorities, namely the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Ireland Offices prior to devolution and their successor authorities from 1999.
This chapter takes stock of the Europeanisation process across the board by evaluating the degree and extent of change that has taken place in Whitehall in the light of our institutionalist approach. It advances a model of Europeanisation to explain the character of adjustment that has come about. First, the chapter uses historical institutionalism as a way of taking stock of developments. Then, it moves on to explain why these changes have taken place, before returning to the model of Europeanisation and adapting and refining it in the light of the findings.