Coherence, leadership and the ‘greening’ of development
This chapter explores why relations between the European Union (EU) and Africa around the issue of climate change are crucial, in particular, for the developmental dimension. It describes that EU claims to offer a global leadership role in the field of climate change. The chapter also analyses how policy incoherence has the potential to weaken support from African countries for its attempts to shape the post-Kyoto climate agreement. It highlights some of the main barriers to the potential success of partnership, such as EU trade, energy and agriculture policy incoherence, access to resources by African states and a potential lack of true dialogue. It describes the marginalisation of the EU at the Copenhagen Summit and the rise of China as an alternative development actor, challenging to the EU's normative leadership.
The Party of European Socialists and the financial crisis
Michael Holmes and Simon Lightfoot
This chapter examines the response of the Party of European Socialists (PES) to the financial crisis and focuses on two objectives. The first was related to theories of the development of Euro-parties. The second was to explore issues relating to social democracy through an analysis of the PES. The chapter explores how the PES sought to build a common social democratic response to the financial crisis at the European level. There were three distinct phases of the PES policy response. First, the PES essentially reiterated existing policy proposals relating to financial regulation. Second, the PES began to try to develop new ideas and policies, by challenging the growing move towards austerity programmes and instead calling for ambitious investment programmes. Third, the PES began to focus particularly on the future cohesion of the single currency and of the European Union (EU), trying to find a means of encouraging European unity.