Catholic factions represented thoughts which may have been secretly held by many, an unspoken, illegal counter-history, which read the revolution of the past as a tragedy and looked for liberation in the future, in the counter-space of an invading army. William Shakespeare's near-contemporary Sir Philip Sidney defended poetry in The Defence of Poesy by arguing that 'the artists, and especially the historian, affirming many things, can, in the cloudy knowledge of mankind, hardly escape from many lies'. The struggle between the artist and Clio is the subject of the most famous and the most modern depiction of Clio: Vermeer's The Allegory of Painting. Whether in the bored gaze of Le Sueur and De Stella's paintings or in Van Balen's depiction of history as an ecstatic dance, Clio is an ambivalent figure for history. Finally, the chapter also presents an outline of this book.
In the Renaissance, the archetype for history was the classical muse Clio, a much-painted figure in an era when the 'history painting' was one of the predominant genres in European visual art. One Renaissance dramatist and poet who never made reference to Clio was William Shakespeare. This book is about official and unofficial versions of the past, histories and counter-histories, in Shakespeare's works and their subsequent appropriations. It builds on a long period in which those of us working in literary and theatre studies have developed an awareness of the extent to which conventional recreations of the past are mediated through the fictionalising structures of narrative. The book explores how the history plays construct counter-historical representations of the dead. It argues that the 'dislocutionary' threat of grief and the performance of the suffering body is a version of the kind of spectator/spectre relationship drawn in any ritualised encounter with the cult of the ancestor. The book combines four historicist readings which explore counter-histories in the early modern period. It examines the relationship between Shakespeare's history plays and alternative dynastic histories. The book also explores questions of history and identity, particularly as they can be configured through performance. It challenges the view that women become progressively marginalised across the histories by arguing that Shakespeare's warlike women enact a power onstage which forces us to rethink official, patriarchal history.