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This text focuses on the far right in the Balkan region, i.e., in Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. The ideological features, strategy and tactics, internal organization, leadership and collaboration in far right parties are treated under the label "internal supply-side". The "external supply side", then, includes the analysis of political, social, economic, ethno-cultural and international variables. The final chapters deal with voters for the far right, legislative implementation and far right organizations. The analysis of the far right parties in Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania shows the main factors important for the success of these parties in these countries are: charismatic leadership and strong party organization, the position and strategy of the mainstream parties, the state-building process, a strong national minority or diaspora abroad, electoral design and an international configuration.

Abstract only
Věra Stojarová
in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

The first chapter is devoted to a discussion of terminology and clarifying the conceptualization. The author notes, that the terminology related to the far right party family remains vague and scholars have not been able to agree on common terms. Political parties and organizations of this type are labelled radical right (e.g. Ramet 1998, Minkenberg 2008), extreme right (e.g. Mudde 2000), right wing extremist (Arzheimer-Carter 2006), neo-fascist (Mammone 2009), neo-Nazi (Becker 1993), neo-populist (e.g. Betz and Immerfall 1998), anti-immigrant (e.g. Fennema 1997), ultraright or far right (e.g. Mareš 2003; Kopeček 2007), New Right (Schanovsky 1997) populist (Frölich-Steffen-Rensmann 2005) or right populist (Rechtspopulismus, Hartleb in Backes-Jesse 2006, Urbat 2006). The author then clarifies the reasons for choosing the term far right which is then used for right extremist as well as right radical parties and also the conceptualisation drawn from Cas Mudde work based on four ideological features – nationalism, xenophobia, law and order and welfare chauvinism.

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

This chapter looks at the World War II predecessors of current formations on the far right and presents the overall context which existed during the 1980s and 1990s in former Yugoslavia at the height of nationalism. The historical chapter is essential in understanding the overall context of the nationalism in the Balkans and the rise of the far right formations.

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

This chapter will focus on the context of far right party politics in the Balkans and select potential candidates for further analysis. In order to be pre-selected for further investigation, the party must have been depicted by researchers as a far right party and must have gained at least one seat during parliamentary elections in the 2000-2010 period. The parties depicted for further analysis are: HSP, SRS, Ataka, PRM, SRS-CG, VMRO, VMRO-NP, BK.

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Brief presentation of political parties in terms of ideology
Věra Stojarová

The primary aim of this chapter is to analyze those parties which are supposedly on the far right of the political spectrum and explore their ideological core using Cas Mudde minimalist definition – therefore focusing on nationalism, xenophobia, law and order and welfare chauvinism. Due to the peculiarities of the Balkan region, additional specifics and regional idiosyncrasies will also be explored: the position of the party towards communism, anti-Semitism and revisionism, populism, the stance on the church and religion, the party's foreign affairs orientation and its stance on NATO, the EU and ICTY, and the party's economic policy.

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

The author examines variables which might potentially influence the success of far right political parties: 1) Political (political discontent, convergence/polarization/fragmentation of the party system, PR electoral system, the emergence of Green parties and New Left movements, referendums which cut across old party dividing lines, the creation of a new state, perceived inernal/external threats, the political expression of nationalism, regime change, political culture, elite behavior); 2) Social (dissolution of established identities, middle class discontent, existence of social tension or conflict); 3) Economic (post-industrial economy, rising unemployment, welfare cuts, economic crisis, war, foreign domination, economic transition); 4) Ethno-cultural (fragmentation of the culture, demography and multiculturalization, the impact of globalization, reaction to an influx of racially and culturally distinct populations, popular xenophobia and racism, religion vs. secularisation, one's own ethnicity living outside the borders of the mother state); 5) The international context (state humiliation, desire for higher status).

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

The author examines variables which might potentially influence the success of far right political parties: 1) Political (political discontent, convergence/polarization/fragmentation of the party system, PR electoral system, the emergence of Green parties and New Left movements, referendums which cut across old party dividing lines, the creation of a new state, perceived inernal/external threats, the political expression of nationalism, regime change, political culture, elite behavior); 2) Social (dissolution of established identities, middle class discontent, existence of social tension or conflict); 3) Economic (post-industrial economy, rising unemployment, welfare cuts, economic crisis, war, foreign domination, economic transition); 4) Ethno-cultural (fragmentation of the culture, demography and multiculturalization, the impact of globalization, reaction to an influx of racially and culturally distinct populations, popular xenophobia and racism, religion vs. secularisation, one's own ethnicity living outside the borders of the mother state); 5) The international context (state humiliation, desire for higher status).

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

A comparison is drawn between the typical far right voter living in the Balkans and his counterpart in Western Europe. The author concludes that their similarity seems to lie in the fact that most are male and young; the only difference is in Romania, where a portion of the PRM electorate is composed of those longing for the old regime. The author also looks at laws focusing on hate speech, activities which promote and incite racial discrimination and other legal issues concerning the parties. The legal framework controlling the banning of parties for reasons to do with hate speech, nationalist propaganda and revisionism is slowly being integrated into the legal systems of the countries analyzed. In practice, however, the law is not enforced. The situation is best (in terms of compatibility and use in practice) is in the EU countries – Romania and Bulgaria.

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Strategy, organization, role of paramilitaries and international cooperation
Věra Stojarová

This chapter briefly outlines the strategies and tactics used by far right parties and focuses on party organizational structure and its relationship to the way parties perform at the polls. Strong, charismatic leaders, centralized organizational structures and efficient mechanisms for enforcing party discipline are likely to bring better performance than is enjoyed by parties with weaker, less-charismatic leadership, less centralized internal structures and lower levels of party discipline. It also focuses on local and pan-European cooperation by far right parties. The greatest cooperation between parties is visible between the mother parties and their branches abroad. The author also examines the ties of paramilitary organizations to the parties of the far right after 2000. The conclusion is that far right parties no longer have their own paramilitary structures. The only exception is the New Right and an alleged relation to the marginal political party PNG-CD in Romania.

in The Far Right in the Balkans